CompTIA A+ 220-902 covers installing and configuring operating systems like Windows, iOS, Android, OS X and Linux. In addition to this the exam covers security, cloud computing and operational procedures. The official exam objectives are 1.0 Windows Operating Systems, 2.0 Other Operating Systems, 3.0 Security, 4.0 Software Troubleshooting, 5.0 Operational Procedures. Passing the 220-902 and 220-901 is required to receive the CompTIA Certification. Generally the 220-901 is completed first but it is not required.
Amanda, a user, has a laptop running Windows 7 Ultimate. She has asked the IT Department to update her laptop to run Windows 10 Pro. Which of the following should be done first?
Windows 10 and Windows 7 were released 6 years apart. It is possible her laptop does not meet the minimum requirements for Windows 10 and the laptop's specs should be verified first.
To be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer. These prerequisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system requirements: minimum and recommended. With increasing demand for higher processing power and resources in newer versions of software, system requirements tend to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest that this trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than technological advancements. A second meaning of the term of system requirements, is a generalisation of this first definition, giving the requirements to be met in the design of a system or sub-system.System_requirements - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You recently connected a new Windows 8 machine to your company's network with Active Directory, but it is not displaying the proper company logon screen, legal banner, or wall paper. What tool is best suited for correcting this problem.
"gpupdate" will pull all of the group policy settings from the Domain Controller, which can set uniform legal banners, backgrounds, and security settings for all of the company's systems. "regedit" is for editing the registry, while you can set these options through the registry it would be very tedious and not recommended. "msconfig" is a tool for editing startup, boot, and service options; it is not appropriate for this problem. "chkdsk" is for checking disk/file system integrity.
Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (including Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows 11, and Windows Server 2003+) that controls the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts. Group Policy provides centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications, and users' settings in an Active Directory environment. A set of Group Policy configurations is called a Group Policy Object (GPO). A version of Group Policy called Local Group Policy (LGPO or LocalGPO) allows Group Policy Object management without Active Directory on standalone computers.Active Directory servers disseminate group policies by listing them in their LDAP directory under objects of class groupPolicyContainer. These refer to fileserver paths (attribute gPCFileSysPath) that store the actual group policy objects, typically in an SMB share \\domain.com\SYSVOL shared by the Active Directory server. If a group policy has registry settings, the associated file share will have a file registry.pol with the registry settings that the client needs to apply.The Policy Editor (gpedit.msc) is not provided on Home versions of Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10/11.Group_Policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You work for an IT Help Desk call center and a customer has contacted you complaining that their text and icons seem very big leaving little space for anything else on the screen. What setting can you instruct the user to change?
The user is complaining that their screen resolution is too low. To increase this you should select Display Settings then resolution.
You are tasked with creating scripts that will run on a schedule, checking the status of various Windows system resources and services. Your boss has stated that they would prefer you to utilize a scripting language that is best suited for the task at hand and does not require you code basic resource and service-checking functionality for the task. You choose to utilize:
PowerShell would be the best choice of scripting language for this task as it has many pre-built commands for querying the status of Windows System resources and services. While all of the other choices, with the exception of Bash, would work for this task, they will likely require more effort being spent on the task than PowerShell.
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management program from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and the associated scripting language. Initially a Windows component only, known as Windows PowerShell, it was made open-source and cross-platform on 18 August 2016 with the introduction of PowerShell Core. The former is built on the .NET Framework, the latter on .NET Core. In PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed via cmdlets (pronounced command-lets), which are specialized .NET classes implementing a particular operation. These work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or Windows Registry, which are made available to PowerShell via providers. Third-party developers can add cmdlets and providers to PowerShell. Cmdlets may be used by scripts, which may in turn be packaged into modules. Cmdlets work in tandem with the .NET API. PowerShell's support for .NET Remoting, WS-Management, CIM, and SSH enables administrators to perform administrative tasks on both local and remote Windows systems. PowerShell also provides a hosting API with which the PowerShell runtime can be embedded inside other applications. These applications can then use PowerShell functionality to implement certain operations, including those exposed via the graphical interface. This capability has been used by Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 to expose its management functionality as PowerShell cmdlets and providers and implement the graphical management tools as PowerShell hosts which invoke the necessary cmdlets. Other Microsoft applications including Microsoft SQL Server 2008 also expose their management interface via PowerShell cmdlets.PowerShell includes its own extensive, console-based help (similar to man pages inPowerShell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the Windows built-in software that monitors network traffic requests, and will determine whether to block or allow it depending on the settings?
Windows Firewall is a software firewall, that you can use to block or allow different requests. In Windows 10 it is called Windows Defender Firewall.
Windows Firewall (officially called Windows Defender Firewall in Windows 10), is a firewall component of Microsoft Windows. It was first included in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Prior to the release of Windows XP Service Pack 2 in 2004, it was known as Internet Connection Firewall. With the release of Windows 10 version 1709 in September 2017, it was renamed Windows Defender Firewall.Windows_Firewall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You show up to work and there is a powered-on laptop on your desk, you co-worker instructs you to make a backup of the user files on the system since the system has been having problems booting. During the process you discover child pornography on the machine, what do you immediately do?
Notifying Law Enforcement (LE) is the safe thing to do, then do not touch anything else on the machine. Making a copy of the drive could disturb forensic artifacts and metadata that would be useful to LE. Alerting management is a big risk, you don't know who the computer belongs to and if they may not report it. Powering the machine off is a big no-no, especially if the system already had problems starting or if encryption is involved.
What is the best method for ensuring the destruction of sensitive data on a HDD that is issued to employees on an as-needed basis?
When data is deleted or a disk is formatted the location of the data is tagged as empty and available for use but is not actually physically removed from the disk. This means after deleting it is still possible to read the data. Overwriting is a method that deletes the data and overwrites the physical location with random information to ensure it can never be recovered.
Data erasure (sometimes referred to as data clearing, data wiping, or data destruction) is a software-based method of overwriting the data that aims to completely destroy all electronic data residing on a hard disk drive or other digital media by using zeros and ones to overwrite data onto all sectors of the device. By overwriting the data on the storage device, the data is rendered irrecoverable and achieves data sanitization. Ideally, software designed for data erasure should: Allow for selection of a specific standard, based on unique needs, and Verify the overwriting method has been successful and removed data across the entire device. Permanent data erasure goes beyond basic file deletion commands, which only remove direct pointers to the data disk sectors and make the data recovery possible with common software tools. Unlike degaussing and physical destruction, which render the storage media unusable, data erasure removes all information while leaving the disk operable. New flash memory-based media implementations, such as solid-state drives or USB flash drives, can cause data erasure techniques to fail allowing remnant data to be recoverable.Software-based overwriting uses a software application to write a stream of zeros, ones or meaningless pseudorandom data onto all sectors of a hard disk drive. There are key differentiators between data erasure and other overwriting methods, which can leave data intact and raise the risk of data breach, identity theft or failure to achieve regulatory compliance. Many data eradication programs also provide multiple overwrites so that they support recognized government and industry standards, though a single-passData_erasure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An office of 25 computers is interested in employing a file server, network shares, and print server functionality. Which of the following network setups would be BEST suited for this situation?
Only a domain will give you a centralized, controlled network and allow for file servers, print servers, and network shares. These are possible in a workgroup, but will not provide the network control that a business would require.
A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes. The computers use common communication protocols over digital interconnections to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. The nodes of a computer network may include personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other specialised or general-purpose hosts. They are identified by network addresses, and may have hostnames. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, including the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network size, the topology, traffic control mechanism, and organizational intent. Computer networks support many applications and services, such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications.Computer network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You can use the Windows Task Scheduler to schedule updates while everyone is out of the office, or during the weekend. Where would you navigate to find the Windows Task Scheduler?
You would navigate to start > control panel > administrative tools > Task Scheduler, or simply search for task scheduler in the search bar.
In computing, scheduling is the action of assigning resources to perform tasks. The resources may be processors, network links or expansion cards. The tasks may be threads, processes or data flows. The scheduling activity is carried out by a process called scheduler. Schedulers are often designed so as to keep all computer resources busy (as in load balancing), allow multiple users to share system resources effectively, or to achieve a target quality-of-service. Scheduling is fundamental to computation itself, and an intrinsic part of the execution model of a computer system; the concept of scheduling makes it possible to have computer multitasking with a single central processing unit (CPU).Scheduling_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Windows System Configuration (Msconfig) general tab has the Diagnostic startup option, used for booting only the basic services.
MSConfig (officially called System Configuration in Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 or Windows 10, or Windows 11 and Microsoft System Configuration Utility in previous operating systems) is a system utility to troubleshoot the Microsoft Windows startup process. It can disable or re-enable software, device drivers and Windows services that run at startup, or change boot parameters. It is bundled with all versions of Microsoft Windows operating systems since Windows 98 except Windows 2000. Windows 95 and Windows 2000 users can download the utility as well, although it was not designed for them.MSConfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a desktop technician for a public school district. Your supervisor has asked you to write a script that will configure the wireless adapters on student's Linux based laptops to connect only to authorized access point. Assuming the access point's MAC Address is 00:0D:9D:C6:38:2D, which command will help you achieve this?
IWCONFIG is a Linux command line tool for configuring wireless settings. IWCONFIG can be used to change settings like authorized access points, signal strength, wireless channel, and what SSID to connect to. IP Address, subnet mask and DNS servers are still configured via IFCONFIG.
Wireless tools for Linux is a collection of user-space utilities written for Linux kernel-based operating systems to support and facilitate the configuration of device drivers of wireless network interface controllers and some related aspects of networking using the Linux Wireless Extension. The Wireless tools for Linux and Linux Wireless Extension are maintained by Jean Tourrilhes and sponsored by Hewlett-Packard.Wireless_tools_for_Linux#iwconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CHKDSK will search for errors on the disk. With /F switch, the errors found will be fixed.
This command will run the Device Manager, which allows the administrator to view and manage hardware on the system
Device Manager is a component of the Microsoft Windows operating system. It allows users to view and control the hardware attached to the computer. When a piece of hardware is not working, the offending hardware is highlighted for the user to deal with. The list of hardware can be sorted by various criteria.For each device, users can: Supply device drivers in accordance with the Windows Driver Model Enable or disable devices Tell Windows to ignore malfunctioning devices View other technical properties Device Manager was introduced with Windows 95 and later added to Windows 2000. On Windows 9x, Device Manager is part of the System applet in Control Panel. On Windows 2000 and all other Windows NT-based versions of Windows, it is a snap-in for Microsoft Management Console.Device_Manager - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A kernel panic is an error that can take place in Unix based systems that most closely resembles a similar fatal error in a Windows environment. Select the most similar fatal error.
A kernel panic most closely resembles the Blue Screen of Death or "BSOD" in Windows environments. A kernel panic or BSOD typically results from a fatal error that requires the system to shut down to prevent permanent damage.
A kernel panic (sometimes abbreviated as KP) is a safety measure taken by an operating system's kernel upon detecting an internal fatal error in which either it is unable to safely recover or continuing to run the system would have a higher risk of major data loss. The term is largely specific to Unix and Unix-like systems. For Microsoft Windows operating systems the equivalent term is "Stop error", resulting in a bug check screen that presents the bug check code on a blue background in Windows (colloquially known as a "Blue Screen of Death" or BSoD), or on a green background on the Xbox One platform and some Windows Insider builds. The kernel routines that handle panics, known as panic() in AT&T-derived and BSD Unix source code, are generally designed to output an error message to the console, dump an image of kernel memory to disk for post-mortem debugging, and then either wait for the system to be manually rebooted, or initiate an automatic reboot. The information provided is of a highly technical nature and aims to assist a system administrator or software developer in diagnosing the problem. Kernel panics can also be caused by errors originating outside kernel space. For example, many Unix operating systems panic if the init process, which runs in user space, terminates.Kernel_panic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
True or false: It is best practice to allow system administrators to have administrator privileges associated with their normal user account.
Best practices dictate that administrators should have a secondary account with administrator privileges, separate from their main user account. This leads to improved security due to maintaining separation of duties and minimizes damage done if user accounts are compromised.
Separation of duties (SoD; also known as Segregation of Duties) is the concept of having more than one person required to complete a task. It is an administrative control used by organisations to prevent fraud, sabotage, theft, misuse of information, and other security compromises. In the political realm, it is known as the separation of powers, as can be seen in democracies where the government is separated into three independent branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.Separation_of_duties - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following commands may be used on a computer, running Windows 7, to stop a single process from the command line?
The TASKKILL command in Windows is used to manually stop a process from running. Example: TASKKILL /IM notepad.exe, will stop the notepad.exe process.
In computing, kill is a command that is used in several popular operating systems to send signals to running processes.Kill_(command) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Personally Identifiable Information (PII) should be safeguarded from unauthorized access. Which of the following would be considered PII?
An individual's driver's license number would be considered PII. While you may be tempted to select medical diagnosis, that would be considered HIPPA information.
Personal data, also known as personal information or personally identifiable information (PII), is any information related to an identifiable person The abbreviation PII is widely accepted in the United States, but the phrase it abbreviates has four common variants based on personal or personally, and identifiable or identifying Not all are equivalent, and for legal purposes the effective definitions vary depending on the jurisdiction and the purposes for which the term is being used Under European and other data protection regimes, which centre primarily on the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the term "personal data" is significantly broader, and determines the scope of the regulatory regimePersonally_identifiable_information - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of these tools provides a a solution that allows a user to have their calendar on both their smart phone, desktop, and be accessible through a web portal (such as outlook web access) all in real time?
Cloud synchronization is the correct answer, it allows a user to share information (contacts, calendars, photos, etc.) between devices with an internet connection. POP3 is a protocol for email, tethering is for sharing an internet connection from your mobile device to another device and VPN is for a way to remotely connect to a network.
Which of the following is a command line tool that will translate between a domain name and an IP Address?
NSLOOKUP will return the IP Address of a domain name by querying a computers assigned DNS Servers for the information. NSLOOKUP is well known as a Windows command but can be used on some Unix based systems as well.
nslookup (from name server lookup) is a network administration command-line tool for querying the Domain Name System (DNS) to obtain the mapping between domain name and IP address, or other DNS records.Nslookup - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user is installing Windows 7 on a PC with a RAID card. The user has verified all of the cables are connected correctly, but the installation media does not detect any hard drives. Which of the following should the user do to help detect the hard drives?
Often when installing Windows onto an external RAID array, a driver is required for Windows to detect the hard drives.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer or automaton. A driver provides a software interface to hardware devices, enabling operating systems and other computer programs to access hardware functions without needing to know precise details about the hardware being used. A driver communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device (drives it). Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.Device_driver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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