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This is a practice exam for IT professionals studying for the CompTIA A+ 220-801. A+ covers the fundamentals of computer technology, installation and configuration of PCs, laptops and related hardware, and basic networking.
During boot up a PC shows an error stating that the System Date and Time is not set. Which of the following will solve this issue?
The CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) provides power to a motherboard in order to track the time while a computer is powered off. If the CMOS battery dies or malfunctions the PC will not be able to track the system time.
Nonvolatile BIOS memory refers to a small memory on PC motherboards that is used to store BIOS settings. It is traditionally called CMOS RAM because it uses a volatile, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) SRAM (such as the Motorola MC146818 or similar) powered by a small "CMOS" battery when system and standby power is off. It is referred to as non-volatile memory or NVRAM because, after the system loses power, it does retain state by virtue of the CMOS battery. The typical NVRAM capacity is 256 bytes.The CMOS RAM and the real-time clock have been integrated as a part of the southbridge chipset and it may not be a standalone chip on modern motherboards. In turn, the southbridge have been integrated into a single Platform Controller Hub. Today's UEFI motherboards use NVRAM to store configuration data (NVRAM is a part of the UEFI flash ROM), but by many OEMs' design, the UEFI settings are still lost if the CMOS battery fails.Nonvolatile_BIOS_memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Infrared (IR) light requires line of sight in order to properly function. Infrared is most commonly used in TV remotes. WiFi, Bluetooth and Radio Frequencies (RF) do not requires LoS and can penetrate physical objects such as walls and ceilings.
Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths from around 1 millimeter (300 GHz) to the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum, around 700 nanometers (430 THz). Longer IR wavelengths (30μm-100μm) are sometimes included as part of the terahertz radiation range. Almost all black-body radiation from objects near room temperature is at infrared wavelengths. As a form of electromagnetic radiation, IR propagates energy and momentum, with properties corresponding to both those of a wave and of a particle, the photon. It was long known that fires emit invisible heat; in 1681 the pioneering experimenter Edme Mariotte showed that glass, though transparent to sunlight, obstructed radiant heat. In 1800 the astronomer Sir William Herschel discovered that infrared radiation is a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer. Slightly more than half of the energy from the Sun was eventually found, through Herschel's studies, to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared. The balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has an important effect on Earth's climate. Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when changing rotational-vibrational movements. It excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines absorption and transmissionInfrared - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A Modem (Modulator/Demodulator) converts between digital signals and analog signals. Hubs, Routers and Switches use digital signals.
A modulator-demodulator or modem is a computer hardware device that converts data from a digital format into a format suitable for an analog transmission medium such as telephone or radio. A modem transmits data by modulating one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information, while the receiver demodulates the signal to recreate the original digital information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded reliably. Modems can be used with almost any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio. Early modems were devices that used audible sounds suitable for transmission over traditional telephone systems and leased lines. These generally operated at 110 or 300 bits per second (bit/s), and the connection between devices was normally manual, using an attached telephone handset. By the 1970s, higher speeds of 1200 and 2400 bit/s for asynchronous dial connections, 4800 bit/s for synchronous leased line connections and 35 kbit/s for synchronous conditioned leased lines were available. By the 1980s, less expensive 1200 and 2400 bit/s dialup modems were being released, and modems working on radio and other systems were available. As device sophistication grew rapidly in the late 1990s, telephone-based modems quickly exhausted the available bandwidth, reaching the ultimate standard of 56 kbit/s. The rise of public use of the internet during the late 1990s led to demands for much higher performance, leading to the move away from audio-based systems to entirely new encodings on cable television lines and short-range signals in subcarriers on telephone lines. The move to cellularModem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Of the following video cable types, which would be the MOST likely to signal degradation over long distances?
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an older analog video cable type. Though it is capable of supporting high definition video, it is much more susceptible to noise, degradation and loss of quality.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video display controller and accompanying de facto graphics standard, first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, which became ubiquitous in the PC industry within three years. The term can now refer to the computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution characteristic of the VGA hardware.VGA was the last IBM graphics standard to which the majority of PC clone manufacturers conformed, making it the lowest common denominator that virtually all post-1990 PC graphics hardware can be expected to implement.IBM intended to supersede VGA with the Extended Graphics Array (XGA) standard, but failed. Instead, VGA was adapted into many extended forms by third parties, collectively known as Super VGA, then gave way to custom graphics processing units which, in addition to their proprietary interfaces and capabilities, continue to implement common VGA graphics modes and interfaces to the present day. The VGA analog interface standard has been extended to support resolutions of up to 2048×1536 and even higher in special applications.Video_Graphics_Array - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following properly describes the use of the DHCP protocol as it relates to a TCP/IP network?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a unique layer 3 (IP Address) to network devices. The address is typically leased for a set amount of time and will expire if a renewal is not requested.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for automatically assigning IP addresses and other communication parameters to devices connected to the network using a client–server architecture.The technology eliminates the need for individually configuring network devices manually, and consists of two network components, a centrally installed network DHCP server and client instances of the protocol stack on each computer or device. When connected to the network, and periodically thereafter, a client requests a set of parameters from the DHCP server using the DHCP protocol. DHCP can be implemented on networks ranging in size from residential networks to large campus networks and regional ISP networks. Many routers and residential gateways have DHCP server capability. Most residential network routers receive a unique IP address within the ISP network. Within a local network, a DHCP server assigns a local IP address to each device. DHCP services exist for networks running Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), as well as version 6 (IPv6). The IPv6 version of the DHCP protocol is commonly called DHCPv6.Dynamic_Host_Configuration_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user recently installed a new printer to replace their older Inkjet printer. After installation any documents they print instead show garbled and unreadable characters. Which of the following should a technician try first?
A driver is required to properly send data from the PC to the printer. Most likely the user did not install this and simply plugged the new printer in expecting it to work.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer or automaton. A driver provides a software interface to hardware devices, enabling operating systems and other computer programs to access hardware functions without needing to know precise details about the hardware being used. A driver communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device (drives it). Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.Device_driver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The CPU Cache is a small pool of memory that stores data frequently needed by a processor. If the data is NOT in the CPU Cache, the processor will request the data from the motherboard's memory (RAM).
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory. A cache is a smaller, faster memory, located closer to a processor core, which stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations. Most CPUs have a hierarchy of multiple cache levels (L1, L2, often L3, and rarely even L4), with different instruction-specific and data-specific caches at level 1. Other types of caches exist (that are not counted towards the "cache size" of the most important caches mentioned above), such as the translation lookaside buffer (TLB) which is part of the memory management unit (MMU) which most CPUs have.CPU_cache - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After upgrading their Internet connection to gigabit internet, a user is reporting speeds no higher than 100 Mbps. The user was told by a technician at their ISP that the issue is on the user's home network. The user stated they only need speeds higher than 100 Mbps on a single desktop computer. Which of the following would most likely solve this problem?
Although the user's internet access is capable of up to 1 Gbps (Gigabit per second), their home network still only supports Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps). 802.11g is only capable of 54 Mbps and switching to the 5 GHz doesn't provide enough information to determine the network speed. The only realistic scenario is to check the router, NIC and ethernet cabling to ensure all are capable of supporting Gigabit Ethernet speeds (or higher).
In computer networking, Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) is the term applied to transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second. The most popular variant 1000BASE-T is defined by the IEEE 802.3ab standard. It came into use in 1999, and has replaced Fast Ethernet in wired local networks due to its considerable speed improvement over Fast Ethernet, as well as its use of cables and equipment that are widely available, economical, and similar to previous standards.Gigabit_Ethernet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A Toner Probe generates an analog signal that can be traced using a wireless probe that will detect the signal. It can be used to trace a cable's location, but cannot verify data integrity or a cables functionality.
Inkjet, Dot Matrix and Daisy Wheel printers all use ink to output characters or images. Thermal Printers apply heat to thermal paper in order to produce images or characters. Additionally, laser printers (not an option) use toner instead of ink.
Thermal printing (or direct thermal printing) is a digital printing process which produces a printed image by passing paper with a thermochromic coating, commonly known as thermal paper, over a print head consisting of tiny electrically heated elements. The coating turns black in the areas where it is heated, producing an image.Most thermal printers are monochrome (black and white) although some two-color designs exist. Thermal transfer printing is a different method, using plain paper with a heat-sensitive ribbon instead of heat-sensitive paper, but using similar print heads.Thermal_printing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The standard SATA power connector consists of 15 pins.
Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives. Serial ATA succeeded the earlier Parallel ATA (PATA) standard to become the predominant interface for storage devices. Serial ATA industry compatibility specifications originate from the Serial ATA International Organization (SATA-IO) which are then promulgated by the INCITS Technical Committee T13, AT Attachment (INCITS T13).Serial_ATA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A standard Type A HDMI connector consists of 19 pins and can be used for high definition video and audio.
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards. HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed and uncompressed LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and implementations of the VESA EDID.: p. III CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the Digital Visual Interface (DVI). No signal conversion is necessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to-HDMI adapter is used.: §C The Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) capability allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one handheld remote control device.: §6.3 Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since the initial release of the technology, but all use the same cable and connector. Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance, resolution and color spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet data connection, and CEC extensions. Production of consumer HDMI products started in late 2003. In Europe, either DVI-HDCP or HDMI is included in the HD ready in-store labeling specification for TV sets for HDTV, formulated by EICTA with SES Astra in 2005. HDMI began to appear on consumer HDTVs in 2004 and camcorders and digital still cameras in 2006. AsHDMI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When a Hub receives a packet or frame it broadcasts the data out all ports (except the port it received it on). Because of this a Hub can become a large security risk as any network device is capable of receiving and recording any and all network data.
An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub, multiport repeater, or simply hub is a network hardware device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. It has multiple input/output (I/O) ports, in which a signal introduced at the input of any port appears at the output of every port except the original incoming. A hub works at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. A repeater hub also participates in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. In addition to standard 8P8C ("RJ45") ports, some hubs may also come with a BNC or an Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) connector to allow connection to legacy 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network segments. Hubs are now largely obsolete, having been replaced by network switches except in very old installations or specialized applications. As of 2011, connecting network segments by repeaters or hubs is deprecated by IEEE 802.3.Ethernet_hub - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following peripheral devices will allow multiple PC's to share a common display or set of displays?
A KVM (Keyboard, Video, Monitor) switch is a intermediary device that allows a single set of peripheral devices to be used with multiple PC's.
A KVM switch (with KVM being an abbreviation for "keyboard, video and mouse") is a hardware device that allows a user to control multiple computers from one or more sets of keyboards, video monitors, and mice.KVM_switch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
USB (Universal Serial Bus) version 2.0 has a maximum transmission speed of 480 Megabits per second (Mbps).
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply (interfacing) between computers, peripherals and other computers A broad variety of USB hardware exists, including eleven different connectors, of which USB-C is the most recent Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) There have been four generations of USB specifications: USB 1x, USB 20, USB 3x, and USB4USB - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following options properly describes the difference between a plenum rated cable and a non-plenum rated cable?
Plenum rated cabling is designed for use in the plenum space of a building. It is required that cables in this area are treated to reduce hazardous fumes in the event of a fire.
Plenum cable is electrical cable that is laid in the plenum spaces of buildings. In the United States, plastics used in the construction of plenum cable are regulated under the National Fire Protection Association standard NFPA 90A: Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. All materials intended for use on wire and cables to be placed in plenum spaces are designed to meet rigorous fire safety test standards in accordance with NFPA 262 and outlined in NFPA 90A. Plenum cable is jacketed with a fire-retardant plastic jacket of either a low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP). Polyolefin formulations, specifically based on polyethylene compounding had been developed by at least two companies in the early to mid-1990s; however, these were never commercialized, and development efforts continue in these yet-untapped product potentials. Development efforts on a non-halogen plenum compound were announced in 2007 citing new flame-retardant synergist packages that may provide an answer for a yet-underdeveloped plenum cable market outside the United States. In 2006, significant concern developed over the potential toxicity of FEP and related fluorochemicals including the process aid perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or C8 such that California has proposed some of these materials as potential human carcinogens. The NFPA Technical Committee on Air Conditioning, in response to public comment, has referred the issue of toxicity of cabling materials to the NFPA Committee on Toxicity for review before 2008. In 2007, a development program specifically targeting the production of a non-halogen plenum cablePlenum_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user wants to limit access to their SOHO network by only allowing certain devices to access it. Which of the following will provide the MOST restrictive access?
Enabling MAC Filter will only allow explicitly stated devices to access the network. This is the most secure option.
In computer networking, MAC Filtering refers to a security access control method whereby the MAC address assigned to each network card is used to determine access to the network. MAC addresses are uniquely assigned to each card, so using MAC filtering on a network permits and denies network access to specific devices through the use of blacklists and whitelists. While the restriction of network access through the use of lists is straightforward, an individual person is not identified by a MAC address, rather a device only, so an authorized person will need to have a whitelist entry for each device that they would like to access the network. While giving a network some additional protection, MAC filtering can be circumvented by using a packet analyzer to find a valid MAC and then using MAC spoofing to access the network using that address. MAC address filtering can be considered as security through obscurity because the effectiveness is based on "the secrecy of the implementation or its components".MAC_filtering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You have been asked to purchase new cabling for a POTS connection. Which of the following connectors could be used?
Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) is a legacy telephone system, like other analog based systems it uses RJ-11 connectors. Modern Voice Over IP (VOIP) systems instead use RJ-45/Ethernet cabling.
Plain old telephone service (POTS), or plain ordinary telephone system, is a retronym for voice-grade telephone service employing analog signal transmission over copper loops. POTS was the standard service offering from telephone companies from 1876 until 1988 in the United States when the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) was introduced, followed by cellular telephone systems, and voice over IP (VoIP). POTS remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in many parts of the world. The term reflects the technology that has been available since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century, in a form mostly unchanged despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing, electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN).Plain_old_telephone_service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A network Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a less-secure network designed to be used by external users (Internet users). The only option that should ever be used by an external user is the Gaming Server. Your Backup Server and Print Server would not be publicly accessible.
In computer security, a DMZ or demilitarized zone (sometimes referred to as a perimeter network or screened subnet) is a physical or logical subnetwork that contains and exposes an organization's external-facing services to an untrusted, usually larger, network such as the Internet. The purpose of a DMZ is to add an additional layer of security to an organization's local area network (LAN): an external network node can access only what is exposed in the DMZ, while the rest of the organization's network is firewalled. The DMZ functions as a small, isolated network positioned between the Internet and the private network.This is not to be confused with a DMZ host, a feature present in some home routers which frequently differs greatly from an ordinary DMZ. The name is from the term demilitarized zone, an area between states in which military operations are not permitted.DMZ_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following options is a volatile RAM type that can be used in a dual-channel configuration?
DDR RAM (Double Data Rate - Random Access Memory) was designed to use two parallel channels to communicate with a motherboard's memory controller. DRAM and SDRAM use a single channel to communicate with the memory controller. While Flash Memory is capable of using multiple channels, it is non-volatile as it retains data without constant power.
In computing, a computer bus operating with double data rate (DDR) transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal. This is also known as double pumped, dual-pumped, and double transition. The term toggle mode is used in the context of NAND flash memory.Double_data_rate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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