The CompTIA A+ certification is for IT professionals that can support modern technologies like security, cloud, data management and more. CompTIA A+ is the industry standard for starting a career in the Information Technology sector. The 220-1102 exam is the second in the CompTIA A+ 1100 series (preceded by 220-1101). CompTIA A+ 220-1102 covers operating systems, security, software and operational procedures.
Your surpervisor asks you to come up with ideas for increasing the physical security in a computer lab used for sensitive projects, which of the following would NOT be an acceptable suggestion?
Encryption is not a physical security measure. Anything regarding access control such as a cypher lock is considered physical security. Video cameras/surveillance are also physical security features, as is controlling access with something you have such as a smart card.
Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks) Physical security involves the use of multiple layers of interdependent systems that can include CCTV surveillance, security guards, protective barriers, locks, access control, perimeter intrusion detection, deterrent systems, fire protection, and other systems designed to protect persons and propertyPhysical Security - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following commands may be used on a computer, running Windows 11, to stop a single process from the command line?
taskkill command in Windows is used to manually stop a process from running. Example:
TASKKILL /IM notepad.exe, will stop the notepad.exe process.
In computing, kill is a command that is used in several popular operating systems to send signals to running processes.Kill_(command) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
At work you have a few Linux servers and are asked to troubleshoot why a webserver on one of them is not responding. You SSH onto the server and want to determine if the webserver process is running. Which command would you use?
ps command is a Linux and Mac command for listing processes. It is also an alias for
Get-Process in PowerShell. The command will list running processes and various details about them. It is a great start to determine if something is running on a Linux machine.
In most Unix and Unix-like operating systems, the ps program (short for "process status") displays the currently-running processes. A related Unix utility named top provides a real-time view of the running processes.Ps_(Unix) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A large enterprise's internal user database was recently hacked and leaked onto the internet. While working for a security consultancy you have found evidence that several user's accounts were accessed using their password. You believe the hackers are using an existing set of common passwords to determine which users hashed passwords match. What type of attach was used to determine the user's hashed passwords?
When passwords are stored in hash format they cannot be reversed into their original form. However if hackers have a large amount of hashed passwords they can take a list of common passwords and their hashed equivalent's, and determine the user's password by comparing the hashed values. One easy way to prevent this is by "salting" password values. For example if a user's password is Password1 before hashing it you could add random letters to make it Password1-I#$(#$(&#$. The user does not know you have added these details so it would be added whenever they type in their password. This changes the hashed value and can prevent Rainbow Tables from being effective.
A rainbow table partitions a function, whose domain is a set of values and whose codomain is a set of keys derived from those values, into chains such that each chain is an alternating sequence of values and keys, followed by a final value. Each item in the chain is derived from the previous item so that the chain may be algorithmically reproduced from the first value in the chain: A key derivation function produces a key from a preceding value, and a reduction function produces a value from a preceding key. The first value and last value of each chain are precomputed and stored, making the chain a row in a virtual table where each even-numbered field contains a value and each odd-numbered field contains the corresponding key. Such a table may be used to discover a secret value (password) given its associated key. It is a practical example of a space–time tradeoff, requiring less processing but using more storage than a brute-force attack which calculates a key on each iteration, but requiring more processing and less storage than a simple table. Use of a key derivation function that employs a salt makes rainbow tables infeasible for recovering a secret value from a key. Rainbow tables were invented by Philippe Oechslin as an application of an earlier, simpler algorithm by Martin Hellman.Rainbow_table - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Certain business focused features like joining an Active Directory domain are not supported in all Windows editions. Windows 7 Home Premium does not include support for joining Active Directory domains.
You have received several emails that appear to be responses from emails originally sent by you. You did not send these emails. The responders are friends of yours and do not seem malicious. What term best describes this situation?
Most likely your email has been compromised or hijacked. Malicious actors often compromise or purchase compromised emails so they can send links to viruses or phishing websites to that email's contact list. Because the emails come from a real account they are often trusted by the recipients, leading them to click links that ask them for usernames, passwords or to download some malicious application.
APT (Advanced Packaging Tool) is the default package manager for the Ubuntu Linux distribution. A package manager is a system used to download, install, update and remove software applications.
Advanced Package Tool, or APT, is a free-software user interface that works with core libraries to handle the installation and removal of software on Debian, and Debian-based Linux Distributions APT simplifies the process of managing software on Unix-like computer systems by automating the retrieval, configuration and installation of software packages, either from precompiled files or by compiling source codeAdvanced_Packaging_Tool - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are troubleshooting a service failing to start on a Windows 10 laptop. You have already confirmed the service is configured to start using
msconfig. You suspect the application is crashing after being started, where could you look to find a log of errors or crashes?
Event Viewer ( or
eventvwr.exe) is a great place to start when troubleshooting application failures. Applications and components of the Windows itself will log events to Event Viewer so they can be reviewed. This may includes information about the application running like configuration details, warning messages and error messages.
Event Viewer is a component of Microsoft's Windows NT operating system that lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine. Applications and operating-system components can use this centralized log service to report events that have taken place, such as a failure to start a component or to complete an action. In Windows Vista, Microsoft overhauled the event system.Due to the Event Viewer's routine reporting of minor start-up and processing errors (which do not, in fact, harm or damage the computer), the software is frequently used by technical support scammers to trick the victim into thinking that their computer contains critical errors requiring immediate technical support. An example is the "Administrative Events" field under "Custom Views" which can have over a thousand errors or warnings logged over a month's time.Event_Viewer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The "CD" command changes the directory where the command prompt is currently pointed. This can be used to navigate the file system.
The cd command, also known as chdir (change directory), is a command-line shell command used to change the current working directory in various operating systems. It can be used in shell scripts and batch files.Cd_(command) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user complains that an application used for their daily tasks often fails. It will lock up for several seconds, then eventually close out. There is no error message shown to the user. What Windows OS application can be used to try and view a history of the application crashes?
Reliability Monitor is an application available in some Windows operating systems that will show a timeline of events recorded by Windows. This includes security warnings, application failures and other informational messages. Using Reliability Monitor you can view when the application crashed, error/crash details and try to identify a pattern or cause for the crashes.
What type of malicious software encrypts files, deletes files or changes permissions on files, then claims to reverse the changes after a fee is paid?
This type of application is known as Ransomware. It will block access to files using encryption, by deleting them or by changing file permissions to lock out the end user. Ransomware will often ask for payment using cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and state it will re-enable file access after the ransom fee is paid.
Ransomware is a type of malware from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's personal data or permanently block access to it unless a ransom is paid. While some simple ransomware may lock the system without damaging any files, more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion. It encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them. In a properly implemented cryptoviral extortion attack, recovering the files without the decryption key is an intractable problem – and difficult to trace digital currencies such as paysafecard or Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are used for the ransoms, making tracing and prosecuting the perpetrators difficult. Ransomware attacks are typically carried out using a Trojan disguised as a legitimate file that the user is tricked into downloading or opening when it arrives as an email attachment. However, one high-profile example, the WannaCry worm, traveled automatically between computers without user interaction.Starting as early as 1989 with the first documented ransomware known as the AIDS trojan, the use of ransomware scams has grown internationally. There were 181.5 million ransomware attacks in the first six months of 2018. This record marks a 229% increase over this same time frame in 2017. In June 2014, vendor McAfee released data showing that it had collected more than double the number of ransomware samples that quarter than it had in the same quarter of the previous year. CryptoLocker was particularly successful, procuring an estimated US$3 million before it was taken down by authorities, andRansomware - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your CEO often travels and works from public areas. Due to the sensitive nature of the CEO's work you want a solution to prevent other people in the public areas from reading confidential data on the CEO's mobile device screen. What solution can help in this scenario?
A privacy screen is a thin piece of plastic that goes over a device's screen. The privacy screen is transparent for users sitting directly in front of the devices screen, but for anyone looking at the screen from an angle the screen is blocked, blurred or heavily darkened. This protects against confidential data on a screen from being easily visible to others in the area.
You volunteer at the local library where you help manage a computer lab. This lab is not always monitored by workers or volunteers but you would like to ensure it is still available for community members at all times. You are concerned people may steal or move the laptops in the computer lab. What type of physical security device could prevent this?
Cable locks are a physical security measure that can prevent small or mobile devices from being physically removed from a location. These are often called cable locks but may also be called a Kensington lock or Kensington security slot. The goal is to secure the device to another large object like a well, desk or cart.
A Kensington Security Slot (also called a K-Slot or Kensington lock) is part of an anti-theft system designed in the mid 1980s and patented by Kryptonite in 1999–2000, assigned to Schlage in 2002, and since 2005 owned and marketed by Kensington Computer Products Group, a division of ACCO Brands.Kensington_Security_Slot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There have been reports of a Windows server system running slowly and a member of the application support team has suggested adding more CPU and memory resources to the virtual machine. Before doing this you should check the _________ utility.
The Windows Performance Monitor is used to check the state of resource usage and should be used as part of the process of verifying that additional resources are required.
Performance Monitor (known as System Monitor in Windows 9x, Windows 2000 and Windows XP) is a system monitoring program introduced in Windows NT 3.1. It monitors various activities on a computer such as CPU or memory usage. This type of application may be used to determine the cause of problems on a local or remote computer by measuring the performance of hardware, software services, and applications.In Windows 9x, System Monitor is not installed automatically during Windows setup, but could be installed manually using the Add/Remove Programs applet, located in the Control Panel. It has few counters available and offers little in the way of customization. In contrast, the Windows NT Performance Monitor is available out-of-the-box and has over 350 performance measurement criteria (called "counters") available. Performance Monitor can display information as a graph, a bar chart, or numeric values and can update information using a range of time intervals. The categories of information that can be monitored depends on which networking services are installed, but they always include file system, kernel, and memory manager. Other possible categories include Microsoft Network Client, Microsoft Network Server, and protocol categories. In Windows 2000, the System Monitor of Windows 9x and the Performance Monitor of Windows NT 4 and earlier, as well as another program called Network Monitor, were merged into a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) plug-in called Performance, which consisted of two parts: "System Monitor" and "Performance Logs and Alerts". The "System Monitor" naming was kept in Windows XP. Some third-party publications referredPerformance_Monitor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Google's Chrome OS is unique from other operating systems in that it primarily uses the web browser as it's user interface (Google Chrome). On some devices users can also install Android apps from the Google Play Store. It is not possible to run applications available for other operating systems like Windows and Mac on Chrome OS (unless they have a web version).
Chrome OS (sometimes styled as ChromeOS) is a Linux-based operating system designed by Google. It is derived from the open-source Chromium OS and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. Google announced the project in July 2009, initially describing it as an operating system where applications and user data would reside in the cloud. Chrome OS was used primarily to run web applications.All Chromium OS and Chrome OS versions support progressive web applications (such as Google Docs or Microsoft Office 365), as well as web browser extensions (which can resemble native applications). Chrome OS (but not Chromium OS) from 2016 onwards can also run Android applications from the Play Store. Since 2018, Chromium OS/Chrome OS version 69 onwards also support Linux applications, which are executed in a lightweight virtual machine with a Debian Linux environment.The operating system is now rarely evaluated apart from the hardware that runs it.Chrome_OS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When you use the COPY command, what switch would you use to verify that new files are written correctly?
The copy command can be used across many Operating Systems (OS). The switch /V will verify the new files are written correctly.
In computing, copy is a command in various operating systems. The command copies computer files from one directory to another.Copy_(command) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term End of Life (EOL) refers to a product or feature that is no longer supported by the vendor. While it may still function no new updates, security fixes or support will be offered by the vendor. Most software like applications and operating systems have an EOL date.
An end-of-life product (EOL product) is a product at the end of the product lifecycle which prevents users from receiving updates, indicating that the product is at the end of its useful life (from the vendor's point of view) At this stage, a vendor stops the marketing, selling, or provision of parts, services or software updates for the product (The vendor may simply intend to limit or end support for the product) In the specific case of product sales, a vendor may employ the more specific term "end-of-sale" ("EOS") All users can continue to access discontinued products, but cannot receive security updates and technical supportEnd-of-life_(product) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your boss has requested that you image a large number of Windows PC's for a new office. The image is standard for all PC's. You know that _________ is the best choice for imaging many clients at once.
Preboot Execution Environment, or PXE, allows you to image PC's from a central server containing a client image.
In computing, the Preboot eXecution Environment, PXE (most often pronounced as pixie, often called PXE Boot/pixie boot.) specification describes a standardized client–server environment that boots a software assembly, retrieved from a network, on PXE-enabled clients. On the client side it requires only a PXE-capable network interface controller (NIC), and uses a small set of industry-standard network protocols such as DHCP and TFTP. The concept behind the PXE originated in the early days of protocols like BOOTP/DHCP/TFTP, and as of 2015 it forms part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) standard. In modern data centers, PXE is the most frequent choice for operating system booting, installation and deployment.Preboot_Execution_Environment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a desktop technician for a graphic design company. The company issues Apple computers running OSX 10.9 to all employees. Recently you have been asked to find a solution that will allow employees to use Windows applications on their computers. Which of the following is a potential solution?
Boot Camp is a Mac OSX application that allows users to install Windows based operating systems. Boot Camp
Boot Camp Assistant is a multi boot utility included with Apple Inc.'s macOS (previously Mac OS X / OS X) that assists users in installing Microsoft Windows operating systems on Intel-based Macintosh computers. The utility guides users through non-destructive disk partitioning (including resizing of an existing HFS+ or APFS partition, if necessary) of their hard disk drive or solid-state drive and installation of Windows device drivers for the Apple hardware. The utility also installs a Windows Control Panel applet for selecting the default boot operating system. Initially introduced as an unsupported beta for Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger, the utility was first introduced with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and has been included in subsequent versions of the operating system ever since. Previous versions of Boot Camp supported Windows XP and Windows Vista. Boot Camp 4.0 for Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard version 10.6.6 up to Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion version 10.8.2 only supported Windows 7. However, with the release of Boot Camp 5.0 for Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion in version 10.8.3, only 64-bit versions of Windows 7 and Windows 8 are officially supported.Boot Camp 6.0 added support for 64-bit versions of Windows 10. Boot Camp 6.1, available on macOS 10.12 Sierra and later, will only accept new installations of Windows 7 and later; this requirement was upgraded to requiring Windows 10 for macOS 10.14 Mojave. Boot Camp is currently not available on Apple silicon Macs. Via virtualization, it is possible to run ARM-based Windows 10 andBoot_Camp_(software) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Microsoft Active Directory a Group Policy is a policy applied to many AD objects. Objects can be user accounts, servers, desktop devices, etc. Group Policies are used to manage things like user account permissions. For example, a policy may be created for each team with default account permissions needed for those users.
Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (including Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows 11, and Windows Server 2003+) that controls the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts. Group Policy provides centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications, and users' settings in an Active Directory environment. A set of Group Policy configurations is called a Group Policy Object (GPO). A version of Group Policy called Local Group Policy (LGPO or LocalGPO) allows Group Policy Object management without Active Directory on standalone computers.Active Directory servers disseminate group policies by listing them in their LDAP directory under objects of class groupPolicyContainer. These refer to fileserver paths (attribute gPCFileSysPath) that store the actual group policy objects, typically in an SMB share \\domain.com\SYSVOL shared by the Active Directory server. If a group policy has registry settings, the associated file share will have a file registry.pol with the registry settings that the client needs to apply.The Policy Editor (gpedit.msc) is not provided on Home versions of Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10/11.Group_Policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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