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A computer at work has become infected with malware. After several attempts to remove the malware using a professional anti-malware tool you find the malicious software is not fully removed. What should you do next?
Buy a new anti-malware tool
Use Safe Mode from now on
Restore the PC using known-good backup
Reformat the PC
The next logical step here is to restore the computer to a known-good backup. You can try to determine what backups are available compared to when the malware was first discovered. If no backups are available or no backups before the infection are available reformatting the PC is an acceptable last resort.
When working inside a PC the first thing you should do before opening the computer is remove power. While working inside the computer what piece of safety equipment should be worn to avoid damaging components?
Steel toe boots
An electrostatic discharge (ESD) strap is a device worn, usually around the wrist, to dissipate built up static electricity that could damage electrical components.
An antistatic device is any device that reduces, dampens, or otherwise inhibits electrostatic discharge, or ESD, which is the buildup or discharge of static electricity. ESD can damage electrical components such as computer hard drives, and even ignite flammable liquids and gases. Many methods exist for neutralizing static electricity, varying in use and effectiveness depending on the application. Antistatic agents are chemical compounds that can be added to an object, or the packaging of an object, to help deter the buildup or discharge of static electricity. For the neutralization of static charge in a larger area, such as a factory floor, semiconductor cleanroom or workshop, antistatic systems may utilize electron emission effects such as corona discharge or photoemission that introduce ions into the area that combine with and neutralize any electrically charged object. In many situations, sufficient ESD protection can be achieved with electrical grounding.Antistatic_device - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What technology can be used to reduce the amount of phishing emails received by your companies end users?
A Spam Filter is a common feature of email clients and email servers. It will automatically detect and quarantine emails believed to be malicious or simply unhelpful (e.g. junk mail).
What physical device or software application is used to restrict which TCP and UDP ports can be used by a network device?
A Firewall is used to restrict network access. In it's simplest form it will block TCP and UDP ports based on number or protocol, but many modern firewalls include complex algorithms to block unusual traffic, detect possible network attacks and monitor or block traffic based on many other factors.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted network and an untrusted network, such as the Internet.Firewall_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following IS an edition of Windows 10?
Windows 10 with Bing
Windows 10 Education
Windows 10 Starter
Windows 10 Ultimate
Windows 10 comes in several different editions: Home, Pro, Pro for Workstations, S, Education, Pro Education, Enterprise, Enterprise LTSC, X, IoT and Team. The remaining options (with Bing, Starter and Ultimate) have been used in past Windows editions but are not available with Windows 10.
Windows 10 has several editions, all with varying feature sets, use cases, or intended devices. Certain editions are distributed only on devices directly from an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), while editions such as Enterprise and Education are only available through volume licensing channels. Microsoft also makes editions of Windows 10 available to device manufacturers for use on specific classes of devices, including IoT devices and previously marketed Windows 10 Mobile for smartphones.Windows_10_editions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your mom just bought a Macbook and has no idea how to use it. She needs to update the Apple Wallet app in order to pay her credit card bill. What is the BEST way for mom to update the app?
Find the app in the App Store and download/install any updates
Delete the app and reinstall it
brew install apple.wallet --update
Navigate to apple.com and download the latest .app bundle
While there are certainly ways to update and install apps outside of the App Store, you should stick to the official App Store for updates and installs whenever possible. Particularly when dealing with someone who is less technical.
The App Store (also known as the Mac App Store) is a digital distribution platform for macOS apps, often referred to as Mac apps, created and maintained by Apple Inc. The platform was announced on October 20, 2010, at Apple's "Back to the Mac" event. Apple began accepting app submissions from registered developers on November 3, 2010, in preparation for its launch.The Mac App Store was launched on January 6, 2011, as part of the free Mac OS X 10.6.6 update for all current Snow Leopard users. After 24 hours of release, Apple announced that there were over one million downloads.Mac_App_Store - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stan, the new HR manager, wants everyone in his department to have access to create and delete accounts to streamline the process for getting new hires setup in the system. Why is this not a good idea?
HR employees are not usually on the Access Control List (ACL)
This could enable tailgating
This does not keep with the principle of least privilege
This could allow HR employees to by-pass privacy filters, though it isn't that big of a threat since they are HR
This is a clear violation of the principle of least privilege, and it would likely drive the IT department mad. ACLs do not have anything to do with account creation/deletion. Privacy filters are a physical security mechanism that prevent folks from watching your screen, this it does not apply to this situation. Tailgating is when someone follows an authorized individual into a controlled area, also not applicable here.
In information security, computer science, and other fields, the principle of least privilege (PoLP), also known as the principle of minimal privilege (PoMP) or the principle of least authority (PoLA), requires that in a particular abstraction layer of a computing environment, every module (such as a process, a user, or a program, depending on the subject) must be able to access only the information and resources that are necessary for its legitimate purpose.Principle_of_least_privilege - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What type of script uses a
.ps1 file extension?
.ps1 extension indicates the file is a text file containing a series of PowerShell commands. You may also see
.ps2 extensions which indicate the file is a PowerShell v2 script. PowerShell is a great way to automate common tasks in a Windows environment. PowerShell is maintained by Microsoft, but it is available cross-platform and can be installed and used on Mac and Linux too (but this is not very common).
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management program from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and the associated scripting language. Initially a Windows component only, known as Windows PowerShell, it was made open-source and cross-platform on August 18, 2016, with the introduction of PowerShell Core. The former is built on the .NET Framework, the latter on .NET (previously .NET Core). Since Windows 10 build 14971, PowerShell replaced Command Prompt and became the default command shell for File Explorer.In PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed via cmdlets (pronounced command-lets), which are specialized .NET classes implementing a particular operation. These work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or Windows Registry, which are made available to PowerShell via providers. Third-party developers can add cmdlets and providers to PowerShell. Cmdlets may be used by scripts, which may in turn be packaged into modules. Cmdlets work in tandem with the .NET API. PowerShell's support for .NET Remoting, WS-Management, CIM, and SSH enables administrators to perform administrative tasks on both local and remote Windows systems. PowerShell also provides a hosting API with which the PowerShell runtime can be embedded inside other applications. These applications can then use PowerShell functionality to implement certain operations, including those exposed via the graphical interface. This capability has been used by Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 to expose its management functionality as PowerShell cmdlets and providers and implement the graphical management tools as PowerShell hosts which invoke the necessary cmdlets. Other Microsoft applications including Microsoft SQL Server 2008PowerShell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What Active Directory feature can be used to apply default user account permissions?
None of these options
In Microsoft Active Directory a Group Policy is a policy applied to many AD objects. Objects can be user accounts, servers, desktop devices, etc. Group Policies are used to manage things like user account permissions. For example, a policy may be created for each team with default account permissions needed for those users.
Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (including Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows 11, and Windows Server 2003+) that controls the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts. Group Policy provides centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications, and users' settings in an Active Directory environment. A set of Group Policy configurations is called a Group Policy Object (GPO). A version of Group Policy called Local Group Policy (LGPO or LocalGPO) allows Group Policy Object management without Active Directory on standalone computers.Active Directory servers disseminate group policies by listing them in their LDAP directory under objects of class groupPolicyContainer. These refer to fileserver paths (attribute gPCFileSysPath) that store the actual group policy objects, typically in an SMB share \\domain.com\SYSVOL shared by the Active Directory server. If a group policy has registry settings, the associated file share will have a file registry.pol with the registry settings that the client needs to apply.The Policy Editor (gpedit.msc) is not provided on Home versions of Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10/11.Group_Policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
At work you have a few Linux servers and are asked to troubleshoot why a webserver on one of them is not responding. You SSH onto the server and want to determine if the webserver process is running. Which command would you use?
ps command is a Linux and Mac command for listing processes. It is also an alias for
Get-Process in PowerShell. The command will list running processes and various details about them. It is a great start to determine if something is running on a Linux machine.
In most Unix and Unix-like operating systems, the ps program (short for "process status") displays the currently-running processes. A related Unix utility named top provides a real-time view of the running processes.Ps_(Unix) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following choices correctly describes an authentication system that allows a user to log in one time to access multiple integrated applications?
Active Directory Authentication (ADA)
Single Sign On (SSO) is an authentication system that is shared by multiple other systems. It allows a user to log in one time using a single set of credentials (e.g. user/pass) to multiple systems. It also makes management easier for IT as they do not need to manage duplicate user accounts for employees in multiple places.
Single sign-on (SSO) is an authentication scheme that allows a user to log in with a single ID to any of several related, yet independent, software systems. True single sign-on allows the user to log in once and access services without re-entering authentication factors. It should not be confused with same-sign on (Directory Server Authentication), often accomplished by using the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and stored LDAP databases on (directory) servers.A simple version of single sign-on can be achieved over IP networks using cookies but only if the sites share a common DNS parent domain.For clarity, a distinction is made between Directory Server Authentication (same-sign on) and single sign-on: Directory Server Authentication refers to systems requiring authentication for each application but using the same credentials from a directory server, whereas single sign-on refers to systems where a single authentication provides access to multiple applications by passing the authentication token seamlessly to configured applications. Conversely, single sign-off or single log-out (SLO) is the property whereby a single action of signing out terminates access to multiple software systems. As different applications and resources support different authentication mechanisms, single sign-on must internally store the credentials used for initial authentication and translate them to the credentials required for the different mechanisms. Other shared authentication schemes, such as OpenID and OpenID Connect, offer other services that may require users to make choices during a sign-on to a resource, but can be configured for single sign-on if those other services (such as user consent) are disabled. An increasing number ofSingle_sign-on - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amanda, a user, has a laptop running Windows 10. She has asked the IT Department to update her laptop to run Windows 11 Pro. Which of the following should be done first?
Verify the laptop can support Windows 11 Pro requirements
Run the Windows 10 Update Software
Reformat the laptop with NTFS11
Purchase a valid Windows 11 Pro License
It is possible her laptop does not meet the minimum requirements for Windows 11 and the laptop's specs should be verified first before making any purchases or doing any upgrades.
To be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer. These prerequisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system requirements: minimum and recommended. With increasing demand for higher processing power and resources in newer versions of software, system requirements tend to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest that this trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than technological advancements. A second meaning of the term system requirements, is a generalisation of this first definition, giving the requirements to be met in the design of a system or sub-system.System_requirements - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What Windows command helps analyze network issues by showing the route, delay, and packet loss to a particular destination, combining features of Traceroute and Ping?
Pathping is a Windows command-line tool that gives details about delays and data loss in the middle points between where you start and where you want to go in a network.
It works by sending various echo request messages to every router between the start and end points, then it figures out the results based on the messages returned. By showing the level of data loss at each router or link, you can figure out if any routers or sub-networks are having issues.
Which of the following options can be used to restrict what devices can be physically connected to a network based on a MAC address?
Access Control Lists
Port Security also known as MAC Filtering is used to restrict which devices can physically connect to the network. This is done by whitelisting which MAC addresses (the physical address of a Networking Interface Card (NIC) are permitted on the network. It is most commonly done where a network port like an RJ-45 is publicly accessible like in an office waiting area.
In computer networking, MAC address filtering is a security access control method whereby the MAC address assigned to each network interface controller is used to determine access to the network. MAC addresses are uniquely assigned to each card, so using MAC filtering on a network permits and denies network access to specific devices through the use of blacklists and whitelists. While the restriction of network access through the use of lists is straightforward, an individual person is not identified by a MAC address, rather a device only, so an authorized person will need to have a whitelist entry for each device that they would like to access the network. While giving a network some additional protection, MAC filtering can be circumvented by using a packet analyzer to find a valid MAC and then using MAC spoofing to access the network using that address. MAC address filtering can be considered as security through obscurity because the effectiveness is based on "the secrecy of the implementation or its components".MAC_filtering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A system admin has created a script to automate a common task across many servers. The script obtains the latest patch applied to the operating system, then checks to see if there are newer versions available. What software development term describes the item used to store the latest patch data?
In software development a variable is defined in a script or software application to store some sort of data temporarily. In this use case you may have something like
$latest_patch_version=3.4.2 where the variable would be
$latest_patch_version and the value would be
In computer programming, a variable is an abstract storage location paired with an associated symbolic name, which contains some known or unknown quantity of data or object referred to as a value; or in simpler terms, a variable is a named container for a particular set of bits or type of data (like integer, float, string etc...). A variable can eventually be associated with or identified by a memory address. The variable name is the usual way to reference the stored value, in addition to referring to the variable itself, depending on the context. This separation of name and content allows the name to be used independently of the exact information it represents. The identifier in computer source code can be bound to a value during run time, and the value of the variable may thus change during the course of program execution.Variables in programming may not directly correspond to the concept of variables in mathematics. The latter is abstract, having no reference to a physical object such as storage location. The value of a computing variable is not necessarily part of an equation or formula as in mathematics. Variables in computer programming are frequently given long names to make them relatively descriptive of their use, whereas variables in mathematics often have terse, one- or two-character names for brevity in transcription and manipulation. A variable's storage location may be referenced by several different identifiers, a situation known as aliasing. Assigning a value to the variable using one of the identifiers willVariable_(computer_science) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is used by HTTPS to verify the authenticity of the server as well as provide encryption for the HTTP protocol?
Certificates are used in HTTPS and many other protocols to certify the authenticity of a server (or both the server and client in some cases) and when encrypting data.
In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the validity of a public key. The certificate includes information about the key, information about the identity of its owner (called the subject), and the digital signature of an entity that has verified the certificate's contents (called the issuer). If the signature is valid, and the software examining the certificate trusts the issuer, then it can use that key to communicate securely with the certificate's subject. In email encryption, code signing, and e-signature systems, a certificate's subject is typically a person or organization. However, in Transport Layer Security (TLS) a certificate's subject is typically a computer or other device, though TLS certificates may identify organizations or individuals in addition to their core role in identifying devices. TLS, sometimes called by its older name Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is notable for being a part of HTTPS, a protocol for securely browsing the web. In a typical public-key infrastructure (PKI) scheme, the certificate issuer is a certificate authority (CA), usually a company that charges customers a fee to issue certificates for them. By contrast, in a web of trust scheme, individuals sign each other's keys directly, in a format that performs a similar function to a public key certificate. In case of key compromise, a certificate may need to be revoked. The most common format for public key certificates is defined by X.509. Because X.509 is very general, the format is furtherPublic_key_certificate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After identifying that systems are infected with malware, according to the best practice procedures for malware removal what step should be performed to minimize the risk of the malware spreading further?
Disable system restore in Windows
Educate the end user
Enable system restore and create a restore point in Windows
Quarantine infected systems
After verifying that there are systems infected with malware, next you should quarantine infected systems so the malware is isolated to those systems. This minimizes the spread of the malware and the chance that more systems become infected.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause disruption to a computer, server, client, or computer network, leak private information, gain unauthorized access to information or systems, deprive access to information, or which unknowingly interferes with the user's computer security and privacy. Researchers tend to classify malware into one or more sub-types (i.e. computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, wiper and keyloggers).Malware poses serious problems to individuals and businesses on the Internet. According to Symantec's 2018 Internet Security Threat Report (ISTR), malware variants number has increased to 669,947,865 in 2017, which is twice as many malware variants as in 2016. Cybercrime, which includes malware attacks as well as other crimes committed by computer, was predicted to cost the world economy $6 trillion USD in 2021, and is increasing at a rate of 15% per year. Since 2021, malware has been designed to target computer systems that run critical infrastructure such as the electricity distribution network.The defense strategies against malware differ according to the type of malware but most can be thwarted by installing antivirus software, firewalls, applying regular patches, securing networks from intrusion, having regular backups and isolating infected systems. Malware can be designed to evade antivirus software detection algorithms.Malware - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are ordering external HDDs for use in your office, they are likely to be used for storing sensitive information such as PII and intellectual property. What is a good way to ensure the confidentiality of these external HDDs?
Full disk encryption
Ensure NTFS is used
Ensure EXT3 is used
Only full disk encryption will ensure the data is not readable by malicious users. The file system will not matter as their security features can be easily bypassed by using an operating system that ignores them. For example Linux operating systems can be configured to ignore NTFS permissions which would allow access to any data on the disk.
Disk encryption is a technology which protects information by converting it into code that cannot be deciphered easily by unauthorized people or processes. Disk encryption uses disk encryption software or hardware to encrypt every bit of data that goes on a disk or disk volume. It is used to prevent unauthorized access to data storage.The expression full disk encryption (FDE) (or whole disk encryption) signifies that everything on the disk is encrypted, but the master boot record (MBR), or similar area of a bootable disk, with code that starts the operating system loading sequence, is not encrypted. Some hardware-based full disk encryption systems can truly encrypt an entire boot disk, including the MBR.Disk_encryption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following Windows options will use the least amount of power?
Hibernation mode will save the contents of the RAM to non-volatile memory for the duration of the powered down state. Sleep mode however, draws minimal power to keep the RAM from clearing.
Hibernation (also known as suspend to disk, or Safe Sleep on Macintosh computers) in computing is powering down a computer while retaining its state. When hibernation begins, the computer saves the contents of its random access memory (RAM) to a hard disk or other non-volatile storage. When the computer is turned on the RAM is restored and the computer is exactly as it was before entering hibernation. Hibernation was first implemented in 1992 and patented by Compaq Computer Corporation in Houston, Texas. Microsoft's Windows 10 employs a type of hibernation (fast startup) by default when shutting down.Hibernation_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
True or false:
Bitlocker is available for Microsoft Windows while EFS is a comparable disk encryption solution for Linux and Mac
Both Bitlocker and Encrypting File System (EFS) are solutions available to Microsoft Windows operating systems. Bitlocker encrypts an entire disk while EFS is a file-level encryption technology.
The Encrypting File System (EFS) on Microsoft Windows is a feature introduced in version 3.0 of NTFS that provides filesystem-level encryption. The technology enables files to be transparently encrypted to protect confidential data from attackers with physical access to the computer. EFS is available in all versions of Windows except the home versions (see Supported operating systems below) from Windows 2000 onwards. By default, no files are encrypted, but encryption can be enabled by users on a per-file, per-directory, or per-drive basis. Some EFS settings can also be mandated via Group Policy in Windows domain environments.Cryptographic file system implementations for other operating systems are available, but the Microsoft EFS is not compatible with any of them. See also the list of cryptographic file systems.Encrypting_File_System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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