Prepare for the CompTIA A+ 220-1101 exam with our free practice test. Randomly generated and customizable, this test allows you to choose the number of questions.
Which cloud model is typically owned, managed, and operated by an organization, its stakeholders, or third parties, and can exist on or off premises?
A private cloud is owned and operated by a single organization and can be located on or off premises. It provides a high level of security and control, making it suitable for businesses with sensitive data and compliance requirements. A public cloud, on the other hand, is owned by cloud service providers and offers services to the general public. A community cloud is shared between organizations with common goals, and a hybrid cloud is a combination of private and public clouds, allowing for data and application sharing between them.
A user reports that every time they boot their desktop computer, the date and time are reset to January 1, 2000. Which of the following is the MOST likely reason for this issue?
The time zone setting in the operating system is incorrect.
The system BIOS needs to be updated.
The CMOS battery is failing or has failed.
The motherboard firmware is corrupted.
The CMOS battery maintains the date and time settings when the computer is powered off. When the battery fails or becomes weak, it can no longer keep the system clock running, resulting in the date and time resetting to the factory defaults every time the system is powered on.
A network administrator is configuring a firewall to secure a network. Which port should be closed to prevent unauthorized remote desktop access, considering the network does not utilize this feature?
Port 3389 is the default port used by Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), which is used for remote desktop access. Closing this port on the firewall would prevent unauthorized remote desktop connections if RDP is not used by the network. The other ports serve different purposes: port 22 is used by Secure Shell (SSH) for secure access, port 80 is used for HTTP web traffic, and port 443 is used for HTTPS secure web traffic. They are unrelated to remote desktop services.
After installing a new integrated component such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a newly assembled computer system you should first:
Enabled in the advanced BIOS settings menu
Update with the latest driver in Device Manager
Enabled in Windows Control Panel
Checked against the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
If the computer is newly assembled it likely needs the device driver before the NIC will be functional. It is possible that the device could be disabled in the Windows control panel and BIOS however this is not a default functionality of either system.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables can be used for direct burial without requiring additional protection.
UTP cables are not suited for direct burial due to their vulnerability to moisture and other environmental factors. Direct burial cables should be specifically designed to withstand these elements, such as those with a gel-filled or otherwise protected construction. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables are available in a direct burial variant with additional protective features.
Multi-factor authentication can be accomplished in conjunction with a password via all of the following peripherals, except for:
Smart card reader
A keyboard would not allow for multi-factor authentication in conjunction with a password. The keyboard would only be able to meet the knowledge factor of MFA, which is already met by a password.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA; two-factor authentication, or 2FA, along with similar terms) is an electronic authentication method in which a user is granted access to a website or application only after successfully presenting two or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism. MFA protects personal data—which may include personal identification or financial assets—from being accessed by an unauthorized third party that may have been able to discover, for example, a single password. A third-party authenticator (TPA) app enables two-factor authentication, usually by showing a randomly generated and frequently changing code to use for authentication.Multi-factor_authentication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the maximum transmission speed of Cat 6 cabling at 100 meters?
Cat 6 cabling can go up to 1000 Megabits per second (Mbps), which is the same as saying 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps). At shorter distances (55 meters) Cat 6 can go up to 10Gbps (10,000 Mbps)
Category 6 cable (Cat 6) is a standardized twisted pair cable for Ethernet and other network physical layers that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Cat 6 must meet more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise than Cat 5 and Cat 5e. The cable standard specifies performance of up to 250 MHz, compared to 100 MHz for Cat 5 and Cat 5e.Whereas Category 6 cable has a reduced maximum length of 55 metres (180 ft) when used for 10GBASE-T, Category 6A cable is characterized to 500 MHz and has improved alien crosstalk characteristics, allowing 10GBASE-T to be run for the same 100-metre (330 ft) maximum distance as previous Ethernet variants.Category_6_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What type of network switch supports plug and play style usage and does not support custom configurations?
Level 5 switch
There is no official definition of managed and unmanaged switches. Different vendors may market their switches differently. However, in general an unmanaged switch does not support or has very limited configuration options and is meant to work for most networks right out of the box. Managed switches require more configuration to properly function but offer more features and functionality.
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, and, by the IEEE, MAC bridge) is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device. A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also forward data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.Switches for Ethernet are the most common form of network switch. The first MAC Bridge was invented in 1983 by Mark Kempf, an engineer in the Networking Advanced Development group of Digital Equipment Corporation. The first 2 port Bridge product (LANBridge 100) was introduced by that company shortly after. The company subsequently produced multi-port switches for both Ethernet and FDDI such as GigaSwitch. Digital decided to license its MAC Bridge patent in a royalty-free, non-discriminatory basis that allowed IEEE standardization. This permitted a number of other companies to produce multi-port switches, including Kalpana. Ethernet was initially a shared-access medium, but the introduction of the MAC bridge began its transformation into its most-common point-to-point form without a collision domain. Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand. Unlike repeater hubs, which broadcast the same data out of each port and let the devices pick out the data addressed to them,Network_switch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You work for a large company that has very challenging and tough security requirements due to contracts with the government. The Software Engineering team wants to increase automation and is requesting features like elasticity, self-provisioning virtual machines and auto-scaling of infrastructure. What type of cloud model, if any, could provide these features but adhere to the strictest security requirements?
None of these answers
Private Clouds offer cloud-like automations and features while still ensuring a complete separation of data and hardware at a physical layer. This gives companies with strict security requirements some of the benefits of a public or hybrid cloud and is a strategy often used by security companies, FINTEC and Government contractors. Public and Hybrid clouds are still used by these types of companies too, but only where security requirements allow for shared infrastructure and "virtual private clouds".
Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user. Large clouds often have functions distributed over multiple locations, each of which is a data center. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and typically uses a pay-as-you-go model, which can help in reducing capital expenses but may also lead to unexpected operating expenses for users.Cloud_computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a Desktop and Laptop Technician for a small computer repair shop. A customer on a limited budget has asked you to upgrade their laptop in order to increase performance. Which of the following components can be easily replaced or upgraded?
Laptop designs often make it difficult to upgrade or change components like video cards, processors and motherboards. RAM and Hard drives are typically easily accessible and cost effective to upgrade in a laptop.
Random-access memory (RAM; ) is a form of electronic computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory, in contrast with other direct-access data storage media (such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory), where the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc. devices.In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuit (IC) chips with MOS (metal–oxide–semiconductor) memory cells. RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory where stored information is lost if power is removed. The two main types of volatile random-access semiconductor memory are static random-access memory (SRAM) and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). Non-volatile RAM has also been developed and other types of non-volatile memories allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them. TheseRandom-access_memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A supervisor has asked you to update the BIOS on a customer's laptop. Where is the best place to find the correct BIOS firmware?
BIOS developer website
Third party website
The best place to find any firmware or software upgrade for a device is through manufacture support. Although it may be possible to find the firmware elsewhere such as the developer of the BIOS firmware's website, the manufacturer will have tested and certified certain versions with your exact product. By obtaining it from anywhere else you run the risk of installing a version that will not work correctly.
In computing, BIOS (, BY-oss, -ohss; Basic Input/Output System, also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS, BIOS ROM or PC BIOS) is firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup). The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on an IBM PC or IBM PC compatible's system board and exists in some UEFI-based systems to maintain compatibility with operating systems that do not support UEFI native operation. The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975. The BIOS originally proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies) looking to create compatible systems. The interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard. The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components (Power-on self-test), and loads a boot loader from a mass storage device which then initializes a kernel. In the era of DOS, the BIOS provided BIOS interrupt calls for the keyboard, display, storage, and other input/output (I/O) devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS interrupt calls after startup.Most BIOS implementations are specifically designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices especially system chipset. Originally, BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard. In later computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flashBIOS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Users are having a hard time remembering the IP address for a commonly used network resource.
The IP address is statically set and the connection is established over port 443.
You know that you have a tool that can solve this issue on your Domain Controller. You log on and configure:
A Global Group and Local Group for the users of this network resource.
A new entry in Active Directory Sites and Services
A DNS record should be established for this network resource. DNS records allow users to access a resource via a name, rather than having to remember a complex IP address.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical and distributed naming system for computers, services, and other resources in the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It associates various information with domain names (identification strings) assigned to each of the associated entities. Most prominently, it translates readily memorized domain names to the numerical IP addresses needed for locating and identifying computer services and devices with the underlying network protocols. The Domain Name System has been an essential component of the functionality of the Internet since 1985. The Domain Name System delegates the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to Internet resources by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. Network administrators may delegate authority over sub-domains of their allocated name space to other name servers. This mechanism provides distributed and fault-tolerant service and was designed to avoid a single large central database. In addition, the DNS specifies the technical functionality of the database service that is at its core. It defines the DNS protocol, a detailed specification of the data structures and data communication exchanges used in the DNS, as part of the Internet protocol suite. The Internet maintains two principal namespaces, the domain name hierarchy and the IP address spaces. The Domain Name System maintains the domain name hierarchy and provides translation services between it and the address spaces. Internet name servers and a communication protocol implement the Domain Name System. A DNS name server is a server that stores the DNS records for a domain; aDomain_Name_System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What special operating system level configuration is necessary when running Windows 10 as a virtual machine?
Install Windows 10 using HyperHost mode
Windows 10 does not support installation as a virtual machine
Install the Microsoft Generic Processor (MGP) driver
No special configuration is needed
There is no special configuration needed when using Windows 10 inside of a virtual machine. Hypervisors provide virtual resources (CPU, Memory, etc.) that appears the same as physical hardware allowing operating systems to be installed and run exactly as they would on physical hosts.
You have been tasked with setting up a secure wireless network for a small law firm. Which of the following WLAN security protocols is the BEST option to use in order to provide the highest level of security?
WPA3 is the latest security protocol for wireless networks and offers improvements in encryption and user authentication over its predecessors. WPA2, while still secure, is not as robust as WPA3. WEP is outdated and has many known security vulnerabilities, making it unsuitable for a business environment. WPA is better than WEP but still less secure than WPA2 and WPA3.
Typically used for telephone and DSL connections, this type of connector needs just 4 wires.
Registered Jack (RJ) 11 connectors are traditionally used for connecting telephones to the POTS network. These connectors rely on just 4 wires that connect what is referred to as tip and ring.
A registered jack (RJ) is a standardized telecommunication network interface for connecting voice and data equipment to a service provided by a local exchange carrier or long distance carrier. Registered interfaces were first defined in the Universal Service Ordering Code (USOC) system of the Bell System in the United States for complying with the registration program for customer-supplied telephone equipment mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the 1970s. They were subsequently codified in title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 68. Registered jack connections began to see use after their invention in 1973 by Bell Labs. The specification includes physical construction, wiring, and signal semantics. Accordingly, registered jacks are primarily named by the letters RJ, followed by two digits that express the type. Additional letter suffixes indicate minor variations. For example, RJ11, RJ14, and RJ25 are the most commonly used interfaces for telephone connections for one-, two-, and three-line service, respectively. Although these standards are legal definitions in the United States, some interfaces are used worldwide. The connectors used for registered jack installations are primarily the modular connector and the 50-pin miniature ribbon connector. For example, RJ11 and RJ14 use female six-position modular connectors, and RJ21 uses a 25-pair (50-pin) miniature ribbon connector. RJ11 uses two conductors in a six-position female modular connector, so can be made with any female six-position modular connector, while RJ14 uses four, so can be made with either a 6P4C or a 6P6C connector.Registered_jack#RJ11,_RJ14,_RJ25_wiring - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which option is NOT a type 2 hypervisor?
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
Hyper-V is a type 1 hypervisor from Microsoft that has direct access to the underlying hardware. The other options are free or commercially available type 2 hypervisors, meaning they run inside a host Operating System and not directly on the physical hardware.
Microsoft Hyper-V, codenamed Viridian, and briefly known before its release as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows. Starting with Windows 8, Hyper-V superseded Windows Virtual PC as the hardware virtualization component of the client editions of Windows NT. A server computer running Hyper-V can be configured to expose individual virtual machines to one or more networks. Hyper-V was first released with Windows Server 2008, and has been available without additional charge since Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8. A standalone Windows Hyper-V Server is free, but has a command-line interface only. The last version of free Hyper-V Server is Hyper-V Server 2019, which is based on Windows Server 2019.Hyper-V - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the function of a digitizer in a modern smart phone?
Translates touches on a device's screen into computer readable input
Converts digital wireless signals into analog for WiFi use
Used by the headphone jack to accept input from headphones with buttons, typically used to pause music or change the system volume
Allows mobile devices to support analog printing devices
The term Digitizer refers to the touch screen digitizer used by modern mobile phones, tablets and laptops. The Digitizer converts input (a user touching their fingertip to the screen) into digital data that can be used by the operating system.
You are setting up a new workstation and decided to use a twisted-pair copper cable to connect the PC to your switch. Which connector would best suit your needs?
RJ-45 is the common name for the 8-pin connector (8P8C) used for various Ethernet cables (CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6, etc), which come with twisted pairs for cross-talk (interference) resistance.
Ethernet ( EE-thər-net) is a family of wired computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet has since been refined to support higher bit rates, a greater number of nodes, and longer link distances, but retains much backward compatibility. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses a thick coaxial cable as a shared medium. This was largely superseded by 10BASE2, which used a thinner and more flexible cable that was both cheaper and easier to use. More modern Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches. Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 Mbit/s to the latest 400 Gbit/s, with rates up to 1.6 Tbit/s under development. The Ethernet standards include several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols trigger retransmission of lost frames. Per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer. The 48-bit MAC address was adopted by other IEEE 802 networking standards, including IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), as well as byEthernet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user within your organization is complaining about issues with connectivity. While troubleshooting you discover that the port on the switch that the user’s computer is connected to is continually alternating between up and down states. This is a condition known as what?
Port flapping (also known as link flap) occurs when a port alternates between up and down states affecting connectivity for anything connected to that port. This can be caused by issues such as cable or other hardware failures, something in the configuration, etc.
Link flap is a condition where a communications link alternates between up and down states. Link flap can be caused by end station reboots, power-saving features, incorrect duplex configuration or marginal connections and signal integrity issues on the link.Link_flap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which USB standard supports up to 5 Gigabit per second transfer speeds?
USB 3.0 has a maximum transmission speed of 5 Gigabits per second. USB 2.0 has a speed of 480 Mbit/s.
USB 3.0, released in November 2008, is the third major version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB) standard for interfacing computers and electronic devices. The USB 3.0 specification defined a new architecture and protocol, named SuperSpeed, which included a new lane for a new signal coding scheme (8b/10b symbols, 5 Gbps; also known later as Gen 1) providing full-duplex data transfers that physically required five additional wires and pins, while preserving the USB 2.0 architecture and protocols and therefore keeping the original four pins and wires for the USB 2.0 backward-compatibility, resulting in nine wires in total and nine or ten pins at connector interfaces (ID-pin is not wired). The new transfer rate, marketed as SuperSpeed USB (SS), can transfer signals at up to 5 Gbit/s with nominal data rate of 500 MB/s after encoding overhead, which is about 10 times faster than High-Speed (maximum for USB 2.0 standard). USB 3.0 Type-A and B connectors are usually blue, to distinguish them from USB 2.0 connectors, as recommended by the specification. and by the initials SS.USB 3.1, released in July 2013, is the successor specification that fully replaces the USB 3.0 specification. USB 3.1 preserves the existing SuperSpeed USB architecture and protocol with its operation mode (8b/10b symbols, 5 Gbps), giving it the label USB 3.1 Gen 1. USB 3.1 introduced an Enhanced SuperSpeed System – while preserving and incorporating the SuperSpeed architecture and protocol (aka SuperSpeed USB) – with an additional SuperSpeedPlus architecture adding and providing a new coding schema (128b/132b symbols) and protocol named SuperSpeedPlus (aka SuperSpeedPlus USB, sometimes marketedUSB_3.0 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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