The CompTIA A+ certification is for IT professionals that can support modern technologies like security, cloud, data management and more. CompTIA A+ is the industry standard for starting a career in the Information Technology sector. The 220-1002 exam is the second in the CompTIA A+ 1000 series (preceded by 220-1001). The 220-1002 exam will cover the following objectives: Operating Systems, Security, Software Troubleshooting and Operational Procedures.
Certain business focused features like joining an Active Directory domain are not supported in all Windows editions. Windows 7 Home Premium does not include support for joining Active Directory domains.
Your surpervisor asks you to come up with ideas for increasing the physical security in a computer lab used for sensitive projects, which of the following would NOT be an acceptable suggestion?
Encryption is not a physical security measure. Anything regarding access control such as a cypher lock is considered physical security. Video cameras/surveillance are also physical security features, as is controlling access with something you have such as a smart card.
Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks) Physical security involves the use of multiple layers of interdependent systems that can include CCTV surveillance, security guards, protective barriers, locks, access control, perimeter intrusion detection, deterrent systems, fire protection, and other systems designed to protect persons and propertyPhysical Security - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A technician is trying to setup a non-domain user account on a workstation, but receives the following error message "Password does not meet the complexity requirements." Which of the following utilities should the technician use to identify the criteria?
Because this is a non-domain (local) user account the Local Security Policy is the cause of the issue. Accessing the policy to determine account requirements will solve the problem.
Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (including Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows 11, and Windows Server 2003+) that controls the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts. Group Policy provides centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications, and users' settings in an Active Directory environment. A set of Group Policy configurations is called a Group Policy Object (GPO). A version of Group Policy called Local Group Policy (LGPO or LocalGPO) allows Group Policy Object management without Active Directory on standalone computers.Active Directory servers disseminate group policies by listing them in their LDAP directory under objects of class groupPolicyContainer. These refer to fileserver paths (attribute gPCFileSysPath) that store the actual group policy objects, typically in an SMB share \\domain.com\SYSVOL shared by the Active Directory server. If a group policy has registry settings, the associated file share will have a file registry.pol with the registry settings that the client needs to apply.The Policy Editor (gpedit.msc) is not provided on Home versions of Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10/11.Group_Policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user has called the help desk where you work stating they cannot find a file on their PC. After asking a few basic questions you have determined they are using Mac OSX. Which standard OSX application can help them locate their file?
Spotlight is an application built into Mac OSX to allow for quick searching of files, applications, system preferences and integration with some search engines.
Spotlight is a system-wide desktop search feature of Apple's macOS and iOS operating systems. Spotlight is a selection-based search system, which creates an index of all items and files on the system. It is designed to allow the user to quickly locate a wide variety of items on the computer, including documents, pictures, music, applications, and System Preferences. In addition, specific words in documents and in web pages in a web browser's history or bookmarks can be searched. It also allows the user to narrow down searches with creation dates, modification dates, sizes, types and other attributes. Spotlight also offers quick access to definitions from the built-in New Oxford American Dictionary and to calculator functionality. There are also command-line tools to perform functions such as Spotlight searches. Spotlight was first announced at the June 2004 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, and then released with Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger in April 2005.A similar feature for iOS 3.0 with the same name was announced on March 17, 2009.Spotlight_(software) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
True or false:
> BranchCache is a feature available to Windows operating systems that allows reading and writing to cached files in the event connectivity is lost to the file server.
BranchCache allows files to be read even when a connection cannot be made with the file server. For example, if a warehouse loses connectivity to the file server in the corporate office hundreds of miles away BranchCache could be used to allow warehouse employees to read locally cached files. BranchCache does not support writing to files unless connectivity to the file server can be established.
Your CEO loves PowerPoint and has mandated its use for all presentations in the company. The company is one the largest in the world but for compliance reasons does not use any cloud products. Which Microsoft Office license would be best for this scenario?
Microsoft Office Enterprise licensing is ideal because it allows unlimited users and PCs to use Office products. This typically makes more sense for large companies, while smaller and medium sized ones may prefer Business licensing where they pay a fee per-user.
Microsoft Office, or simply Office, is the former name of a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1, 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, Object Linking and Embedding data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. It contains a word processor (Word), a spreadsheet program (Excel) and a presentation program (PowerPoint), an email client (Outlook), a database management system (Access), and a desktop publishing app (Publisher).Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. Microsoft also maintains mobile apps for Android and iOS. Office on the web is a version of the software that runs within a web browser. Since Office 2013, Microsoft has promoted Office 365 as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows the use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, and users receive feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integrationMicrosoft_Office - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What technology from Microsoft can be used by system administrators to apply policies and configurations to groups of user accounts and client PCs?
Microsoft Active Directory is a directory service for organizing user accounts, servers and client operating systems. Additionally it provides helpful features like enforcing password policies, running login scripts, applying user account restrictions and much more.
Active Directory (AD) is a directory service developed by Microsoft for Windows domain networks. It is included in most Windows Server operating systems as a set of processes and services. Initially, Active Directory was used only for centralized domain management. However, Active Directory eventually became an umbrella title for a broad range of directory-based identity-related services.A server running the Active Directory Domain Service (AD DS) role is called a domain controller. It authenticates and authorizes all users and computers in a Windows domain type network, assigning and enforcing security policies for all computers, and installing or updating software. For example, when a user logs into a computer that is part of a Windows domain, Active Directory checks the submitted username and password and determines whether the user is a system administrator or normal user. Also, it allows management and storage of information, provides authentication and authorization mechanisms and establishes a framework to deploy other related services: Certificate Services, Active Directory Federation Services, Lightweight Directory Services, and Rights Management Services.Active Directory uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Microsoft's version of Kerberos, and DNS.Active_Directory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social engineering makes use primarily of which of the following techniques, to bypass common corporate security barriers?
Social Engineering is the process of manipulating another person or group of people to divulge information or perform actions relevant to a systems security.
In the context of information security, social engineering is the psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. A type of confidence trick for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or system access, it differs from a traditional "con" in that it is often one of many steps in a more complex fraud scheme. It has also been defined as "any act that influences a person to take an action that may or may not be in their best interests."An example of social engineering is the use of the "forgot password" function on most websites which require login. An improperly-secured password-recovery system can be used to grant a malicious attacker full access to a user's account, while the original user will lose access to the account.Social_engineering_(security) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An office of 25 computers is interested in employing a file server, network shares, and print server functionality. Which of the following network setups would be BEST suited for this situation?
Only a domain will give you a centralized, controlled network and allow for file servers, print servers, and network shares. These are possible in a workgroup, but will not provide the network control that a business would require.
A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes. The computers use common communication protocols over digital interconnections to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. The nodes of a computer network can include personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other specialised or general-purpose hosts. They are identified by network addresses, and may have hostnames. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, including the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network size, the topology, traffic control mechanism, and organizational intent. Computer networks support many applications and services, such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications.Computer network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Python is a programming language that uses the file extension
.py. It is a common way to automate things, create websites and other use cases. As a system administrator you may encounter it and even use it to make your job easier, like running a script on lots of servers instead of manually making a configuration change yourself.
Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with the use of significant indentation.Python is dynamically-typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. It is often described as a "batteries included" language due to its comprehensive standard library.Guido van Rossum began working on Python in the late 1980s as a successor to the ABC programming language and first released it in 1991 as Python 0.9.0. Python 2.0 was released in 2000 and introduced new features such as list comprehensions, cycle-detecting garbage collection, reference counting, and Unicode support. Python 3.0, released in 2008, was a major revision not completely backward-compatible with earlier versions. Python 2.7.18, released in 2020, was the last release of Python 2.Python consistently ranks as one of the most popular programming languages.Python_(programming_language) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
pkill is not a Windows command, but can be found on some Linux OSs and Mac OS.
taskkill, using Task Manager and pressing ALT+F4 while using an application are all common ways to stop a process on Windows.
Android is a mobile operating system that uses a custom Linux kernel. You can imagine a kernel as the brain of an operating system. The type of kernel used in an OS determines what type of OS it is. Linux flavors use a Linux kernel, Windows editions use the Windows NT kernel, iOS and macOS use Apple's XNU kernel (XNU itself is based on Unix). Easy right?
Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open-source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance, though its most widely used version is primarily developed by Google. It was unveiled in November 2007, with the first commercial Android device, the HTC Dream, being launched in September 2008. At its core, the operating system is known as Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is free and open-source software (FOSS) primarily licensed under the Apache License. However most devices run on the proprietary Android version developed by Google, which ship with additional proprietary closed-source software pre-installed, most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS) which includes core apps such as Google Chrome, the digital distribution platform Google Play, and the associated Google Play Services development platform. While AOSP is free, the "Android" name and logo are trademarks of Google, which imposes standards to restrict the use of Android branding by "uncertified" devices outside their ecosystem.Over 70 percent of smartphones based on Android Open Source Project run Google's ecosystem (which is known as simply Android), some with vendor-customized user interfaces and software suites, such as TouchWiz and later One UI by Samsung and HTC Sense. Competing ecosystems and forks of AOSP include Fire OS (developed by Amazon), ColorOS by OPPO, OriginOS by Vivo, MagicUI by Honor, or custom ROMs such as LineageOS. The source code has been used toAndroid_(operating_system) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Google's Chrome OS is unique from other operating systems in that it primarily uses the web browser as it's user interface (Google Chrome). On some devices users can also install Android apps from the Google Play Store. It is not possible to run applications available for other operating systems like Windows and Mac on Chrome OS (unless they have a web version).
Chrome OS (sometimes styled as ChromeOS) is a Linux-based operating system designed by Google. It is derived from the open-source Chromium OS and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. Google announced the project in July 2009, initially describing it as an operating system where applications and user data would reside in the cloud. Chrome OS was used primarily to run web applications.All Chromium OS and Chrome OS versions support progressive web applications (such as Google Docs or Microsoft Office 365), as well as web browser extensions (which can resemble native applications). Chrome OS (but not Chromium OS) from 2016 onwards can also run Android applications from the Play Store. Since 2018, Chromium OS/Chrome OS version 69 onwards also support Linux applications, which are executed in a lightweight virtual machine with a Debian Linux environment.The operating system is now rarely evaluated apart from the hardware that runs it.Chrome_OS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A system utility available in the Windows operating system that allows to roll back system files and settings to an earlier point in time is known as:
System Restore is a tool that will cycle all files and applications back to the time specified, while task manager allows the administrator to monitor system usage and close applications.
System Restore is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems. First included in Windows Me, it has been included in all following desktop versions of Windows released since, excluding Windows Server. In Windows 10, System Restore is turned off by default and must be enabled by users in order to function. This does not affect personal files such as documents, music, pictures, and videos. In prior Windows versions it was based on a file filter that watched changes for a certain set of file extensions, and then copied files before they were overwritten. An updated version of System Restore introduced by Windows Vista uses the Shadow Copy service as a backend (allowing block-level changes in files located in any directory on the volume to be monitored and backed up regardless of their location) and allows System Restore to be used from the Windows Recovery Environment in case the Windows installation no longer boots at all.System_Restore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are troubleshooting a connectivity issue on a Windows OS and suspect it is DNS related. What command can be used to see if a DNS server has been assigned?
ipconfig is the Windows command tool to view network related configurations. Using
ipconfig /all will display all network configuration information like a computer's IP addresses, DHCP servers, default gateways and known DNS servers.
ipconfig (standing for "Internet Protocol configuration") is a console application program of some computer operating systems that displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.Ipconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
True or false: It is best practice to allow system administrators to have administrator privileges associated with their normal user account.
Best practices dictate that administrators should have a secondary account with administrator privileges, separate from their main user account. This leads to improved security due to maintaining separation of duties and minimizes damage done if user accounts are compromised.
Separation of duties (SoD), also known as segregation of duties is the concept of having more than one person required to complete a task. It is an administrative control used by organisations to prevent fraud, sabotage, theft, misuse of information, and other security compromises. In the political realm, it is known as the separation of powers, as can be seen in democracies where the government is separated into three independent branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.Separation_of_duties - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An application built for one operating system cannot always be run on other operating systems. It will vary from application to application and support for each operating system must be enabled by the developers. Linux and macOS do have many similarities making it common for applications to be supported on both, but it is not automatic or guaranteed.
You are at another employee's desk helping them solve an issue they reported to the help desk where you work. A few moments after they have explained the issue and you begin troubleshooting your phone begins to ring. What should you do next?
When working with customers and colleagues you should maintain professionalism and avoid any distractions or interruptions. Silencing the phone and apologizing is the best choice given the scenario. Continuing or escalating the interruption could be seen as rude and interpreted as you not caring about the person's issue.
An unknown device has been found on a SOHO wireless router. Which of the following is BEST to perform to keep this device off the network?
Configuring MAC Filtering will only allow approved MAC Addresses to connect to the router. This is the BEST option of those given, CompTIA questions are often worded like this. In reality the best option would be to change the WiFi password and verify the encryption settings first, but this was not an option.
In computer networking, MAC Filtering refers to a security access control method whereby the MAC address assigned to each network card is used to determine access to the network. MAC addresses are uniquely assigned to each card, so using MAC filtering on a network permits and denies network access to specific devices through the use of blacklists and whitelists. While the restriction of network access through the use of lists is straightforward, an individual person is not identified by a MAC address, rather a device only, so an authorized person will need to have a whitelist entry for each device that they would like to access the network. While giving a network some additional protection, MAC filtering can be circumvented by using a packet analyzer to find a valid MAC and then using MAC spoofing to access the network using that address. MAC address filtering can be considered as security through obscurity because the effectiveness is based on "the secrecy of the implementation or its components".MAC_filtering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the best method for ensuring the destruction of sensitive data on a HDD that is issued to employees on an as-needed basis?
When data is deleted or a disk is formatted the location of the data is tagged as empty and available for use but is not actually physically removed from the disk. This means after deleting it is still possible to read the data. Overwriting is a method that deletes the data and overwrites the physical location with random information to ensure it can never be recovered.
Data erasure (sometimes referred to as data clearing, data wiping, or data destruction) is a software-based method of overwriting the data that aims to completely destroy all electronic data residing on a hard disk drive or other digital media by using zeros and ones to overwrite data onto all sectors of the device in an irreversible process. By overwriting the data on the storage device, the data is rendered irrecoverable and achieves data sanitization. Ideally, software designed for data erasure should: Allow for selection of a specific standard, based on unique needs, and Verify the overwriting method has been successful and removed data across the entire device. Permanent data erasure goes beyond basic file deletion commands, which only remove direct pointers to the data disk sectors and make the data recovery possible with common software tools. Unlike degaussing and physical destruction, which render the storage media unusable, data erasure removes all information while leaving the disk operable. New flash memory-based media implementations, such as solid-state drives or USB flash drives, can cause data erasure techniques to fail allowing remnant data to be recoverable.Software-based overwriting uses a software application to write a stream of zeros, ones or meaningless pseudorandom data onto all sectors of a hard disk drive. There are key differentiators between data erasure and other overwriting methods, which can leave data intact and raise the risk of data breach, identity theft or failure to achieve regulatory compliance. Many data eradication programs also provide multiple overwrites so that they support recognized government and industryData_erasure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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