The CompTIA A+ certification is for IT professionals that can support modern technologies like security, cloud, data management and more. CompTIA A+ is the industry standard for starting a career in the Information Technology sector. The 220-1001 exam is the first in the CompTIA A+ 1000 series (followed by 220-1002). The 220-1001 exam will cover the following objectives: Mobile Devices, Networking, Hardware, Virtualization & Cloud Computing, and Hardware & Network Troubleshooting.
A user receives the following message when they log in "Windows has detected an IP address conflict". What is MOST LIKELY the issue?
Windows will show this alert when it detects its assigned IP is being used somewhere else on the network. This can happen when a static IP is assigned and it conflicts with a DHCP server or when two workstations are given the same static IP.
You are an engineer at a large company running virtual machines on premise. A cluster of identical VMs is running behind a shared load balancer. Another team has requested that a new VM be created for the cluster and that it should be identical to the existing VMs. What function or tool could you use in this situation?
In the context of Virtual Machines the term "cloning" means to copy an entire virtual machine to create a duplicate. This is the VM equivalent of copy+paste and is helpful for scaling or creating new servers using an existing "template" server. Note: Some changes can be expected, such as unique attributes like IP addresses and hostnames but everything else will be identical.
You are helping a friend build a new gaming PC. To save on costs they have opted to buy a new motherboard but keep their existing DDR2 memory from their previous PC. After having some trouble getting the memory to fit into the motherboard you check the motherboard manufacturer's documentation and find they recommend their own DDR3 memory. How should you proceed?
DDR2 and DDR3 memory are not compatible and will not physically fit into each other's slots on a motherboard. In this case you will need to purchase new DDR3 memory as the documentation states it uses DDR3. However as an open standard you do not need to purchase the memory from the same manufacturer as the motherboard. As long as both the memory and the motherboard support DDR3 any brand will be fine.
The "cloud" can be a vague and ever-changing environment, there are a lot of buzzwords and marketing terms in addition to many technical ones. For CompTIA A+ you need to know: Community Cloud, Private Cloud, Public Cloud and Hybrid Cloud models.
A community cloud in computing is a collaborative effort in which infrastructure is shared between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. This is controlled and used by a group of organizations that have shared interest. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.The community cloud is provisioned for use by a group of consumers from different organisations who shares same concerns (e.g., application, security, policy, and efficiency demands).Community_cloud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A 64-bit CPU can be used either with a 32-bit or 64-bit version of the Microsoft Windows operating system.
64-bit CPUs are compatible with 32-bit Microsoft operating systems, although it performs best with 64-bit.
In computer architecture, 64-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 64 bits wide. Also, 64-bit CPUs and ALUs are those that are based on processor registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. A computer that uses such a processor is a 64-bit computer. From the software perspective, 64-bit computing means the use of machine code with 64-bit virtual memory addresses. However, not all 64-bit instruction sets support full 64-bit virtual memory addresses; x86-64 and ARMv8, for example, support only 48 bits of virtual address, with the remaining 16 bits of the virtual address required to be all 0's or all 1's, and several 64-bit instruction sets support fewer than 64 bits of physical memory address. The term 64-bit also describes a generation of computers in which 64-bit processors are the norm. 64 bits is a word size that defines certain classes of computer architecture, buses, memory, and CPUs and, by extension, the software that runs on them. 64-bit CPUs have been used in supercomputers since the 1970s (Cray-1, 1975) and in reduced instruction set computers (RISC) based workstations and servers since the early 1990s. In 2003, 64-bit CPUs were introduced to the mainstream PC market in the form of x86-64 processors and the PowerPC G5. A 64-bit register can hold any of 264 (over 18 quintillion or 1.8×1019) different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 64 bits depends on the integer representation used. With the two most common representations,64-bit_computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You want to move from using physical servers to using virtual servers/machines (VMs) while utilizing the same hardware that is currently in place. You need to make sure this is possible, what feature must your CPU support?
If your processor does not support virtualization you cannot run VMs on the server. Hyperthreading and multicore processors are nice-to-have but not essential. Dual voltage options are for power supplies, not processing.
In computing, hardware-assisted virtualization is a platform virtualization approach that enables efficient full virtualization using help from hardware capabilities, primarily from the host processors. A full virtualization is used to emulate a complete hardware environment, or virtual machine, in which an unmodified guest operating system (using the same instruction set as the host machine) effectively executes in complete isolation. Hardware-assisted virtualization was added to x86 processors (Intel VT-x or AMD-V) in 2005 and 2006 (respectively). Hardware-assisted virtualization is also known as accelerated virtualization; Xen calls it hardware virtual machine (HVM), and Virtual Iron calls it native virtualization.Hardware-assisted_virtualization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user reports that their printouts contain a shadow of the previous image. Which of the following is MOST likely the cause?
After a printer applies toner to paper the fuser assembly rolls over the paper and applies heat to fuse the toner to the paper. Occasionally, the toner can stick to the fuser assembly and will be applied to the next sheet of paper passed through the printer.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively-charged cylinder called a "drum" to define a differentially-charged image. The drum then selectively collects electrically-charged powdered ink (toner), and transfers the image to paper, which is then heated to permanently fuse the text, imagery, or both, to the paper. As with digital photocopiers, laser printers employ a xerographic printing process. Laser printing differs from traditional xerography as implemented in analog photocopiers in that in the latter, the image is formed by reflecting light off an existing document onto the exposed drum. Invented at Xerox PARC in the 1970s, laser printers were introduced for the office and then home markets in subsequent years by IBM, Canon, Xerox, Apple, Hewlett-Packard and many others. Over the decades, quality and speed have increased as prices have decreased, and the once cutting-edge printing devices are now ubiquitous.Laser_printing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
RAID 10 (also called RAID 1 + 0) combines RAIDs 1 and 0 into a single disk array and provides both data redundancy faster performance.
RAID (; "redundant array of inexpensive disks" or "redundant array of independent disks") is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both. This was in contrast to the previous concept of highly reliable mainframe disk drives referred to as "single large expensive disk" (SLED).Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways, referred to as RAID levels, depending on the required level of redundancy and performance. The different schemes, or data distribution layouts, are named by the word "RAID" followed by a number, for example RAID 0 or RAID 1. Each scheme, or RAID level, provides a different balance among the key goals: reliability, availability, performance, and capacity. RAID levels greater than RAID 0 provide protection against unrecoverable sector read errors, as well as against failures of whole physical drives.RAID - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The clock on your computer keeps falling out of sync, you have to set it each time you restart the computer or power it on. The offset is never consistent. What should you do to correct this issue?
Since the offset is inconsistent and the clock issues seem to revolve around the system not being powered on it could be a CMOS battery issue. If it were an NTP (port 321) or timezone issue you would likely see a consistent offset. None of these symptoms are typical of an overheating system.
Nonvolatile BIOS memory refers to a small memory on PC motherboards that is used to store BIOS settings. It is traditionally called CMOS RAM because it uses a volatile, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) SRAM (such as the Motorola MC146818 or similar) powered by a small "CMOS" battery when system and standby power is off. It is referred to as non-volatile memory or NVRAM because, after the system loses power, it does retain state by virtue of the CMOS battery. The typical NVRAM capacity is 256 bytes.The CMOS RAM and the real-time clock have been integrated as a part of the southbridge chipset and it may not be a standalone chip on modern motherboards. In turn, the southbridge have been integrated into a single Platform Controller Hub. Today's UEFI motherboards use NVRAM to store configuration data (NVRAM is a part of the UEFI flash ROM), but by many OEMs' design, the UEFI settings are still lost if the CMOS battery fails.Nonvolatile_BIOS_memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your supervisor has asked you to record the IP version 6 addresses of several SUSE Linux systems into a spreadsheet. Which command can you use to obtain this information?
echo || ip -6
ifconfig (Interface Configuration) is a command line tool on Unix-like systems to display network configuration details. The Windows equivalent is
IPCONFIG. Unix-like systems typically refers to Unix, Linux, BSD and OSX operating systems.
ifconfig (short for interface config) is a system administration utility in Unix-like operating systems for network interface configuration. The utility is a command-line interface tool and is also used in the system startup scripts of many operating systems. It has features for configuring, controlling, and querying TCP/IP network interface parameters. Ifconfig originally appeared in 4.2BSD as part of the BSD TCP/IP suite.ifconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A USB Drive is the only device or component that can be used as a boot device. DDR2 is a type of Random Access Memory (RAM). HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is audio/video interface. FDISK is a command on some operating systems that provides disk partitioning functions - but it is not a storage device as requested by the question.
USB drive may refer to: A USB flash drive or "thumb drive", a USB-connected computer storage using semiconductor non-volatile random-access memory A USB external drive, a hard drive fitted with a USB interface Secure Digital, a non-volatile memory card format CompactFlash, a flash memory mass storage device Memory Stick, a removable flash memory card formatUSB_drive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A type of Central Processing Unit (CPU) architecture where a single physical CPU contains more than one execution core on a single die or chip is known as:
Having a multicore CPU allows computers to execute multiple instructions at one time.
A multi-core processor is a computer processor on a single integrated circuit with two or more separate processing units, called cores, each of which reads and executes program instructions. The instructions are ordinary CPU instructions (such as add, move data, and branch) but the single processor can run instructions on separate cores at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs that support multithreading or other parallel computing techniques. Manufacturers typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP) or onto multiple dies in a single chip package. The microprocessors currently used in almost all personal computers are multi-core. A multi-core processor implements multiprocessing in a single physical package. Designers may couple cores in a multi-core device tightly or loosely. For example, cores may or may not share caches, and they may implement message passing or shared-memory inter-core communication methods. Common network topologies used to interconnect cores include bus, ring, two-dimensional mesh, and crossbar. Homogeneous multi-core systems include only identical cores; heterogeneous multi-core systems have cores that are not identical (e.g. big.LITTLE have heterogeneous cores that share the same instruction set, while AMD Accelerated Processing Units have cores that do not share the same instruction set). Just as with single-processor systems, cores in multi-core systems may implement architectures such as VLIW, superscalar, vector, or multithreading. Multi-core processors are widely used across many application domains, including general-purpose, embedded, network, digital signal processing (DSP), and graphics (GPU). Core count goes up to even dozens, andMulti-core_processor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Power over Ethernet (PoE) allows devices to use an ethernet connection as a power source, most commonly found in IP phones. The ethernet cable provides the power for the device to operate as well as network connectivity.
Power over Ethernet, or PoE, describes any of several standards or ad hoc systems that pass electric power along with data on twisted-pair Ethernet cabling. This allows a single cable to provide both data connection and electric power to devices such as wireless access points (WAPs), Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phones. There are several common techniques for transmitting power over Ethernet cabling. Three of them have been standardized by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard IEEE 802.3 since 2003. These standards are known as alternative A, alternative B, and 4PPoE. For 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX, only two of the four signal pairs in typical Cat 5 cable are used. Alternative B separates the data and the power conductors, making troubleshooting easier. It also makes full use of all four twisted pairs in a typical Cat 5 cable. The positive voltage runs along pins 4 and 5, and the negative along pins 7 and 8. Alternative A transports power on the same wires as data for 10 and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet variants. This is similar to the phantom power technique commonly used for powering condenser microphones. Power is transmitted on the data conductors by applying a common voltage to each pair. Because twisted-pair Ethernet uses differential signaling, this does not interfere with data transmission. The common-mode voltage is easily extracted using the center tap of the standard Ethernet pulse transformer. For Gigabit Ethernet and faster, both alternatives A and B transport power on wire pairsPower_over_Ethernet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A projector in a conference room has been shutting down randomly during meetings. You've checked the operational hours for the bulb and they remain well within it's lifespan. You have also verified the seating and integrity of the bulb. You hear the whir of the fan from the projector from several feet away, but no grinding or knocking. There are no power-saving settings turned on. There are heat-warnings visible on the interface. You suspect that you may need to replace:
Dust filters past their life-span or cycles on projectors are a common cause of overheating and shutdowns. Replacing the dust filter should be the first step in troubleshooting this issue.
A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. Video projectors use a very bright Ultra-high-performance lamp (a special mercury arc lamp), Xenon arc lamp, LED or solid state blue, RB, RGB or remote fiber optic RGB lasers to provide the illumination required to project the image, and most modern ones can correct any curves, blurriness, and other inconsistencies through manual settings. If a blue laser is used, a phosphor wheel is used to turn blue light into white light, which is also the case with white LEDs. (White LEDs do not use lasers.) A wheel is used in order to prolong the lifespan of the phosphor, as it is degraded by the heat generated by the laser diode. Remote fiber optic RGB laser racks can be placed far away from the projector, and several racks can be housed in a single, central room. Each projector can use up to two racks, and several monochrome lasers are mounted on each rack, the light of which is mixed and transmitted to the projector booth using optical fibers. Projectors using RB lasers use a blue laser with a phosphor wheel in conjunction with a conventional solid state red laser. Video projectors are used for many applications such as conference room presentations, classroom training, home cinema, movie theaters and concerts, having mostly replaced overhead, slide and conventional film projectors. In schools and other educational settings, they are sometimesVideo_projector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user has lost the charging cable for their company issued Android smartphone. You are tasked with providing them with a replacement. The user has requested that they need not utilize an adapter to make the cable work with their device.
While you would need to know the specific make and model of the device to supply the correct charging cable, you can immediately rule out one of the following cables:
USB Type B connectors are typically utilized for connecting devices such as printers and while they can provide power to devices, they are not used with Android devices. Remember to read the question carefully! It is asking which cable is the least likely to be correct!
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply (interfacing) between computers, peripherals and other computers A broad variety of USB hardware exists, including eleven different connectors, of which USB-C is the most recent Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) There have been four generations of USB specifications: USB 1x, USB 20, USB 3x, and USB4USB#Connector_types - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What connector type is usually used to provide power from a PCs power supply to an internal hard drive, CD or DVD drive?
Molex connectors are found in older desktop PCs and provide power to components like hard drives and CD drives. As most modern PCs use SATA drives with special SATA Power cables the use of Molex connectors has dropped significantly.
Molex connector is the vernacular term for a two-piece pin and socket interconnection. Pioneered by Molex Connector Company, the two-piece design became an early electronic standard. Molex developed and patented the first examples of this connector style in the late 1950s and early 1960s. First used in home appliances, other industries soon began designing it into their products from automobiles to vending machines to minicomputers. In such a connector, cylindrical spring-metal pins fit into cylindrical spring-metal sockets. The pins and sockets are held in a rectangular matrix in a nylon shell. The connector typically has 2 to 24 contacts and is polarized or keyed to ensure correct orientation. Pins and sockets can be arranged in any combination in a single housing, and each housing can be either male or female. There are three typical pin sizes: 1.57 mm (0.062 in), 2.13 mm (0.084 in), and 2.36 mm (0.093 in). The 1.57 mm pin can carry 5 A of current, while the 2.36 mm can carry 8.5 A. Because the pins have a large contact surface area and fit tightly, these connectors are typically used for power. In October 1963, AMP (now TE Connectivity) introduced the Mate-n-Lok connector. The AMP connector was similar to the patented Molex connectors but not interchangeable. Both were widely used in the computer industry and the term "Molex connector" is often inaccurately used to refer to all nylon plugs and receptacles. The first 5.25-inch floppy disk drive, the Shugart SA400, introduced in August 1976, used the AMP Mate-n-Lok connector part number 350211-1. This connector became the standard for 5.25-inch formatMolex_connector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Of the following choices, which is an industry standard protocol used by computer networks to assign IP Addresses to network nodes and devices?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns IP's to network devices. Domain Name Service (DNS) translates between IP Addresses and Domain names. Address Resolution Protocol translates between IP Addresses and MAC Addresses (Reverse-ARP, RARP does the opposite)
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for automatically assigning IP addresses and other communication parameters to devices connected to the network using a client–server architecture.The technology eliminates the need for individually configuring network devices manually, and consists of two network components, a centrally installed network DHCP server and client instances of the protocol stack on each computer or device. When connected to the network, and periodically thereafter, a client requests a set of parameters from the server using DHCP. DHCP can be implemented on networks ranging in size from residential networks to large campus networks and regional ISP networks. Many routers and residential gateways have DHCP server capability. Most residential network routers receive a unique IP address within the ISP network. Within a local network, a DHCP server assigns a local IP address to each device. DHCP services exist for networks running Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), as well as version 6 (IPv6). The IPv6 version of the DHCP protocol is commonly called DHCPv6.Dynamic_Host_Configuration_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are an IT Analyst for a large chain of stores. Your department has been asked to evaluate accepting payments through wireless transmission from mobile devices. Which standard technology are they referring to?
Near Field Communication (NFC) is the standard wireless protocol behind wireless payment options such as Android Pay and Apple Pay.
Near-Field Communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols for communication between two electronic devices over a distance of 4 cm (11⁄2 in) or less NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more-capable wireless connectionsNFC devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards They are used in contactless payment systems and allow mobile payment replacing or supplementing systems such as credit cards and electronic ticket smart cards This is sometimes called NFC/CTLS or CTLS NFC, with contactless abbreviated CTLS NFC can be used for sharing small files such as contacts, and bootstrapping fast connections to share larger media such as photos, videos, and other filesNear_field_communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following network topologies provides the most redundancy to protect against network outages?
In a Mesh network topology every network node (router, switch, hub, etc) is connected to every other network node. If a connection breaks, the node can easily communicate with another through multiple existing connections. In reality this is too complex to implement in a large network, but it is still very common to see a hybrid network with several mesh style layers.
A mesh network (or simply meshnet) is a local area network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches, and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data to and from clients. This lack of dependency on one node allows for every node to participate in the relay of information. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead. The ability to self-configure enables dynamic distribution of workloads, particularly in the event a few nodes should fail. This in turn contributes to fault-tolerance and reduced maintenance costs.Mesh topology may be contrasted with conventional star/tree local network topologies in which the bridges/switches are directly linked to only a small subset of other bridges/switches, and the links between these infrastructure neighbours are hierarchical. While star-and-tree topologies are very well established, highly standardized and vendor-neutral, vendors of mesh network devices have not yet all agreed on common standards, and interoperability between devices from different vendors is not yet assured.Mesh_networking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Of the following 4 options, which incorrectly describes the functionality of parity RAM or parity memory?
Parity memory or Parity RAM (Random Access Memory) uses a parity bit to detect errors. Parity memory is great for detecting errors but offers no way to correct the error once it occurs. Automatic error correction is possible using Error-correcting code memory (ECC) but not parity memory. Note: The question asks which option is incorrect.
RAM parity checking is the storing of a redundant parity bit representing the parity (odd or even) of a small amount of computer data (typically one byte) stored in random-access memory, and the subsequent comparison of the stored and the computed parity to detect whether a data error has occurred. The parity bit was originally stored in additional individual memory chips; with the introduction of plug-in DIMM, SIMM, etc. modules, they became available in non-parity and parity (with an extra bit per byte, storing 9 bits for every 8 bits of actual data) versions.RAM_parity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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