The addressing used in the OSI model layer 2 (Data link layer) is MAC addressing. The ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) resolves layer 3 addressing (IP addresses) to layer 2 addresses (MAC addresses). ARP Poisoning involves spoofing ARP data to redirect traffic to an incorrect address, typically to steal data.
In computer networking, ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning, or ARP poison routing, is a technique by which an attacker sends (spoofed) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) messages onto a local area network. Generally, the aim is to associate the attacker's MAC address with the IP address of another host, such as the default gateway, causing any traffic meant for that IP address to be sent to the attacker instead.
ARP spoofing may allow an attacker to intercept data frames on a network, modify the traffic, or stop all traffic. Often the attack is used as an opening for other attacks, such as denial of service, man in the middle, or session hijacking attacks.The attack can only be used on networks that use ARP, and requires attacker have direct access to the local network segment to be attacked.