Lithium ion batteries are the most common type for small mobile devices like laptops and smart devices
A lithium-ion or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery which uses the reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into electronically conducting solids to store energy. In comparison with other rechargeable batteries, Li-ion batteries are characterized by a higher specific energy, higher energy density, higher energy efficiency, longer cycle life and longer calendar life. Also noteworthy is a dramatic improvement in lithium-ion battery properties after their market introduction in 1991: within the next 30 years their volumetric energy density increased threefold, while their cost dropped tenfold.The invention and commercialization of Li-ion batteries is considered as having one of the largest societal impacts in human history among all technologies, as was recognized by 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
More specifically, Li-ion batteries enabled portable consumer electronics, laptop computers, cellular phones and electric cars, or what has been called e-mobility revolution. It also sees significant use for grid-scale energy storage, as well as military and aerospace applications.
Although many thousands of different materials have been investigated for use in lithium-ion batteries, the usable chemistry space for this technology, that made into commercial applications, is extremely small. All commercial Li-ion cells use intercalation compounds as active materials. The anode (or negative electrode) is usually graphite, although silicon is often mixed in to increase the capacity. The solvent is usually lithium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a mixture of organic carbonates. A number of different cathode materials are used, such as LiCoO2, LiFePO4 and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides.
Lithium-ion cells can be manufactured to optimize