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This practice exam covers basic computer networking, to include the installation and configuration of networks, media types, configuration types, and network security. Passing this exam will require knowledge in the Ethernet Protocol, IPv4, and some IPv6, MAC addressing, TCP/UDP, the OSI Layer, and various other protocols such as SNMP, SSH, FTP, SSL/TLS, and more.
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) uses a 3-way handshake to authenticate the opposing end of a connection, and will periodically repeat the authentication process during the connection.
In computing, the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is an authentication protocol originally used by Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) to validate users. CHAP is also carried in other authentication protocols such as RADIUS and Diameter. Almost all network operating systems support PPP with CHAP, as do most network access servers. CHAP is also used in PPPoE, for authenticating DSL users. As the PPP sends data unencrypted and "in the clear", CHAP is vulnerable to any attacker who can observe the PPP session. An attacker can see the user's name, CHAP challenge, CHAP response, and any other information associated with the PPP session. The attacker can then mount an offline dictionary attack in order to obtain the original password. When used in PPP, CHAP also provides protection against replay attacks by the peer through the use of a challenge which is generated by the authenticator, which is typically a network access server. Where CHAP is used in other protocols, it may be sent in the clear, or it may be protected by a security layer such as Transport Layer Security (TLS). For example, when CHAP is sent over RADIUS using User Datagram Protocol (UDP), any attacker who can see the RADIUS packets can mount an offline dictionary attack, as with PPP. CHAP requires that both the client and server know the clear-text version of the password, although the password itself is never sent over the network. Thus when used in PPP, CHAP provides better security as compared to Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) whichChallenge-Handshake_Authentication_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nbtstat will query the network for hostnames, while nslookup queries for domain name to IP. Nbtstat is often found only on 64 bit (not 32 bit) Windows Operating Systems.
NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks NetBIOS was developed in the early 1980s, targeting very small networks (about a dozen computers) Some applications still use NetBIOS, and do not scale well in today's networks of hundreds of computers when NetBIOS is run over NBF When properly configured, NBT allows those applications to be run on large TCP/IP networks (including the whole Internet, although that is likely to be subject to security problems) without change NBT is defined by the RFC 1001 and RFC 1002 standard documentsNbtstat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You suspect a hacker has accessed the network. Which of the following may help you confirm your suspicion?
System logs will show every event on an operating system. This is very useful to find if some one accessed the system, among many other things.
In computing, a log file is a file that records either events that occur in an operating system or other software runs, or messages between different users of a communication software Logging is the act of keeping a log In the simplest case, messages are written to a single log file A transaction log is a file (ie, log) of the communications between a system and the users of that system, or a data collection method that automatically captures the type, content, or time of transactions made by a person from a terminal with that system For Web searching, a transaction log is an electronic record of interactions that have occurred during a searching episode between a Web search engine and users searching for information on that Web search engineLogfile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Increasing antenna gain will increase the amount of energy projected in a certain direction (gain). This will increase the distance of travel, and therefor the overall cell size of the AP.
In electromagnetics, an antenna's power gain or simply gain is a key performance number which combines the antenna's directivity and electrical efficiency. In a transmitting antenna, the gain describes how well the antenna converts input power into radio waves headed in a specified direction. In a receiving antenna, the gain describes how well the antenna converts radio waves arriving from a specified direction into electrical power. When no direction is specified, gain is understood to refer to the peak value of the gain, the gain in the direction of the antenna's main lobe. A plot of the gain as a function of direction is called the gain pattern or radiation pattern. Antenna gain is usually defined as the ratio of the power produced by the antenna from a far-field source on the antenna's beam axis to the power produced by a hypothetical lossless isotropic antenna, which is equally sensitive to signals from all directions. Usually this ratio is expressed in decibels, and these units are referred to as decibels-isotropic (dBi). An alternative definition compares the received power to the power received by a lossless half-wave dipole antenna, in which case the units are written as dBd. Since a lossless dipole antenna has a gain of 2.15 dBi, the relation between these units is GAntenna_gain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ipconfig command will present you with information on all NIC's on a computer or server.
ipconfig (standing for "Internet Protocol configuration") is a console application program of some computer operating systems that displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.Ipconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Arp (Address Resolution Protocol) queries a network to find the MAC Address for an IP Address. The Windows command to use ARP is easy, it's just 'arp'!
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given internet layer address, typically an IPv4 address. This mapping is a critical function in the Internet protocol suite. ARP was defined in 1982 by RFC 826, which is Internet Standard STD 37. ARP has been implemented with many combinations of network and data link layer technologies, such as IPv4, Chaosnet, DECnet and Xerox PARC Universal Packet (PUP) using IEEE 802 standards, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). In Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) networks, the functionality of ARP is provided by the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP).Address Resolution Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A router separates both collision and broadcast domains. This means each port will represent it's own domains. Because there are 24 ports, there are 24 broadcast and 24 collision domains.
A collision domain is a network segment connected by a shared medium or through repeaters where simultaneous data transmissions collide with one another. The collision domain applies particularly in wireless networks, but also affected early versions of Ethernet. A network collision occurs when more than one device attempts to send a packet on a network segment at the same time. Members of a collision domain may be involved in collisions with one another. Devices outside the collision domain do not have collisions with those inside. A channel access method dictates that only one device in the collision domain may transmit at any one time, and the other devices in the domain listen to the network and refrain from transmitting while others are already transmitting in order to avoid collisions. Because only one device may be transmitting at any one time, total network bandwidth is shared among all devices on the collision domain. Collisions also decrease network efficiency on a collision domain as collisions require devices to abort transmission and retransmit at a later time. Since data bits are propagated at a finite speed, simultaneously is to be defined in terms of the size of the collision domain and the minimum packet size allowed. A smaller packet size or a larger dimension would make it possible for a sender to finish sending the packet without the first bits of the message being able to reach the most remote node. So, that node could start sending as well, without a clue to theCollision_domain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A server needs to be accessed at all times, with outages kept to a minimum. Using anything but static IP addresses will cause issues when clients attempt to access the server. If the Ip changed, the network and clients will have to learn about the change.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as 192.0.2.1 that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 192.0.2.1 in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g., 192.0.2.1/24, which is equivalent to the historically used subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), and other end users. IPv4 addresses were distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of approximately 16.8 million addresses each, but have been exhausted at the IANA level since 2011. Only one of the RIRs still has a supply for local assignments in Africa. Some IPv4 addresses are reserved for private networks and are not globally unique. Network administrators assign an IP address to each device connected to aIP_address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) is a type of Ethernet that has an EMI resistant jacket. Because there are a large amount servers, STP is necessary. UTP should be avoided in data centers because they are susceptible to crosstalk. Fiber is incorrect because the question specifies we need a cost effective solutions. Typically, fiber will be used on trunk and backbone connections.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility. Compared to a single conductor or an untwisted balanced pair, a twisted pair reduces electromagnetic radiation from the pair and crosstalk between neighboring pairs and improves rejection of external electromagnetic interference. It was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.For additional noise immunity, twisted-pair cabling may be shielded. Cable with shielding is known as shielded twisted pair (STP) and without as unshielded twisted pair (UTP).Twisted_pair - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) is a technology in networking when each node senses if anyone else is communicating. If the node senses that some one else is using the network, then it will wait and try again in a moment. CSMA/CD (Carrier Detection) is not used with wireless because a single antenna cannot send & receive at the same time and therefor can't detect detection.
Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) in computer networking, is a network multiple access method in which carrier sensing is used, but nodes attempt to avoid collisions by beginning transmission only after the channel is sensed to be "idle" When they do transmit, nodes transmit their packet data in its entirety It is particularly important for wireless networks, where the collision detection of the alternative CSMA/CD is not possible due to wireless transmitters desensing their receivers during packet transmission CSMA/CA is unreliable due to the hidden node problemCSMA/CA is a protocol that operates in the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of the OSI modelCarrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An employee connects to her desktop from her home computer, using the built in Windows Remote Desktop feature. What port is she most likely using?
Windows remote desktop uses RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) which uses port 3389 as it's default port.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft which provides a user with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection. The user employs RDP client software for this purpose, while the other computer must run RDP server software. Clients exist for most versions of Microsoft Windows (including Windows Mobile), Linux (for example Remmina), Unix, macOS, iOS, Android, and other operating systems. RDP servers are built into Windows operating systems; an RDP server for Unix and OS X also exists (which one? Citation please). By default, the server listens on TCP port 3389 and UDP port 3389.Microsoft currently refers to their official RDP client software as Remote Desktop Connection, formerly "Terminal Services Client". The protocol is an extension of the ITU-T T.128 application sharing protocol. Microsoft makes some specifications public on their website.Remote Desktop Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Layer 3, the network layer, is the OSI model layer that uses logical (IP) addressing.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers.Network_layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
WPA2 (WiFi Protected Access v2) supports the use of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) for encryption.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2), and Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 (WPA3) are the three security and security certification programs developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks. The Alliance defined these in response to serious weaknesses researchers had found in the previous system, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).WPA (sometimes referred to TKIP standard) became available in 2003. The Wi-Fi Alliance intended it as an intermediate measure in anticipation of the availability of the more secure and complex WPA2, which became available in 2004 and is a common shorthand for the full IEEE 802.11i (or IEEE 802.11i-2004) standard. In January 2018, Wi-Fi Alliance announced the release of WPA3 with several security improvements over WPA2.Wi-Fi_Protected_Access - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A firewall will allow you to filter a network or areas of a network based on ports as well as the data inside of each packet.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted network and an untrusted network, such as the Internet.Firewall (computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
HTTPS uses TCP port 443 and HTTP uses TCP port 80
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is used for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet. In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS) or, formerly, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). The protocol is therefore also referred to as HTTP over TLS, or HTTP over SSL. The principal motivations for HTTPS are authentication of the accessed website, and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit. It protects against man-in-the-middle attacks, and the bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server protects the communications against eavesdropping and tampering. The authentication aspect of HTTPS requires a trusted third party to sign server-side digital certificates. This was historically an expensive operation, which meant fully authenticated HTTPS connections were usually found only on secured payment transaction services and other secured corporate information systems on the World Wide Web. In 2016, a campaign by the Electronic Frontier Foundation with the support of web browser developers led to the protocol becoming more prevalent. HTTPS is now used more often by web users than the original non-secure HTTP, primarily to protect page authenticity on all types of websites; secure accounts; and to keep user communications, identity, and web browsing private.HTTPS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Each bit is represented by a physical signal, either electric or optic. Because it is a physical signal, it resides on layer 1 (Physical layer) of the OSI model.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer; The layer most closely associated with the physical connection between devices. This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the line code to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified by the physical layer.Physical layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
If a CAT5 cable is longer than the standard maximum length, which problem is most likely to be an issue?
Db (Decibel) levels will decrease, causing errors and loss of data. For CAT cables, the standard maximum is 100 meters, anything beyond that will be unreliable.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a relative unit of measurement equal to one tenth of a bel (B). It expresses the ratio of two values of a power or root-power quantity on a logarithmic scale. Two signals whose levels differ by one decibel have a power ratio of 101/10 (approximately 1.26) or root-power ratio of 101⁄20 (approximately 1.12).The unit expresses a relative change or an absolute value. In the latter case, the numeric value expresses the ratio of a value to a fixed reference value; when used in this way, the unit symbol is often suffixed with letter codes that indicate the reference value. For example, for the reference value of 1 volt, a common suffix is "V" (e.g., "20 dBV").Two principal types of scaling of the decibel are in common use. When expressing a power ratio, it is defined as ten times the logarithm in base 10. That is, a change in power by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 10 dB change in level. When expressing root-power quantities, a change in amplitude by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 20 dB change in level. The decibel scales differ by a factor of two, so that the related power and root-power levels change by the same value in linear systems, where power is proportional to the square of amplitude. The definition of the decibel originated in the measurement of transmission loss and power in telephony of the early 20th century in the Bell System in the United States. The bel was namedDecibel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When determining the default subnet mask of an IP you need to identify which class (A, B, C, etc.) the IP falls under. The first octet of the IP is 172 which falls in the class B range of 128 â€“ 191. The corresponding default subnet for this range is 255.255.0.0. A network architect is not required to use the default and could design the network to use any subnet mask, but the question specifically asks for the default mask.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR ) is a method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous classful network addressing architecture on the Internet Its goal was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addressesIP addresses are described as consisting of two groups of bits in the address: the most significant bits are the network prefix, which identifies a whole network or subnet, and the least significant set forms the host identifier, which specifies a particular interface of a host on that networkIPv4_subnetting_reference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What media would be best for a backbone connection, which will connect multiple floors of a large buildings network with thousands of users?
Because your traversing different levels, wireless is out. Coax isn't practical to begin with, so that leave Ethernet and Fiber. The question specifies this is a large building, with a large network, so fiber is the best choice.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of infrared light through an optical fiber. The light is a form of carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference is required. This type of communication can transmit voice, video, and telemetry through local area networks or across long distances.Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, internet communication, and cable television signals. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached a record bandwidth–distance product of over 100 petabit × kilometers per second using fiber-optic communication.Fiber-optic communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TFTP (Trivial-File Transfer Protocol) uses default port 69. Do not confuse this with FTP, which uses 20 and 21.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a simple lockstep File Transfer Protocol which allows a client to get a file from or put a file onto a remote host. One of its primary uses is in the early stages of nodes booting from a local area network. TFTP has been used for this application because it is very simple to implement. TFTP was first standardized in 1981 and the current specification for the protocol can be found in RFC 1350.Trivial_File_Transfer_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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