CompTIA Network+ covers the configuration, management, and troubleshooting of common wired and wireless network devices. Also included are emerging technologies such as unified communications, mobile, cloud, and virtualization technologies. The official exam objectives are 1.0 Network Architecture, 2.0 Network operations, 3.0 Network security, 4.0 Troubleshooting, and 5.0 Industry standards, practices, and network theory.
A switch operates at level 2 of the OSI model, and forwards network traffic based of MAC Addresses.
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, and, by the IEEE, MAC bridge) is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device. A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also forward data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.Switches for Ethernet are the most common form of network switch. The first MAC Bridge was invented in 1983 by Mark Kempf, an engineer in the Networking Advanced Development group of Digital Equipment Corporation. The first 2 port Bridge product (LANBridge 100) was introduced by that company shortly after. The company subsequently produced multi-port switches for both Ethernet and FDDI such as GigaSwitch. Digital decided to license its MAC Bridge patent in a royalty-free, non-discriminatory basis that allowed IEEE standardization. This permitted a number of other companies to produce multi-port switches, including Kalpana. Ethernet was initially a shared-access medium, but the introduction of the MAC bridge began its transformation into its most-common point-to-point form without a collision domain. Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand. Unlike repeater hubs, which broadcast the same data out of each port and let the devices pick out the data addressed to them,Network switch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
WPA2 (WiFi Protected Access v2) supports the use of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) for encryption.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2), and Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 (WPA3) are the three security and security certification programs developed after 2000 by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks. The Alliance defined these in response to serious weaknesses researchers had found in the previous system, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).WPA (sometimes referred to TKIP standard) became available in 2003. The Wi-Fi Alliance intended it as an intermediate measure in anticipation of the availability of the more secure and complex WPA2, which became available in 2004 and is a common shorthand for the full IEEE 802.11i (or IEEE 802.11i-2004) standard. In January 2018, Wi-Fi Alliance announced the release of WPA3 with several security improvements over WPA2.Wi-Fi_Protected_Access - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which Windows command line utility will use ICMP echo/reply packets to test a connection to a remote host?
The Windows ping command uses ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request to reach a target IP, then the host will reply with an ICMP Reply.
ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. It is available for virtually all operating systems that have networking capability, including most embedded network administration software. Ping measures the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer that are echoed back to the source. The name comes from active sonar terminology that sends a pulse of sound and listens for the echo to detect objects under water.Ping operates by means of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets. Pinging involves sending an ICMP echo request to the target host and waiting for an ICMP echo reply. The program reports errors, packet loss, and a statistical summary of the results, typically including the minimum, maximum, the mean round-trip times, and standard deviation of the mean. The command-line options of the ping utility and its output vary between the numerous implementations. Options may include the size of the payload, count of tests, limits for the number of network hops (TTL) that probes traverse, interval between the requests and time to wait for a response. Many systems provide a companion utility ping6, for testing on Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networks, which implement ICMPv6.Ping (networking utility) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You have been asked to identify the MAC address for the default gateway for a device's subnet. Which Windows command will help you identify this?
Netstat will show open connections by IP and port. Nslookup will resolve domains to IP addresses (DNS). Ipconfig /all will show you the default gateway and your MAC addresses but not the MAC of another network device. arp -a will show the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table, which will include the ARP for your default gateway.
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given internet layer address, typically an IPv4 address. This mapping is a critical function in the Internet protocol suite. ARP was defined in 1982 by RFC 826, which is Internet Standard STD 37. ARP has been implemented with many combinations of network and data link layer technologies, such as IPv4, Chaosnet, DECnet and Xerox PARC Universal Packet (PUP) using IEEE 802 standards, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). In Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) networks, the functionality of ARP is provided by the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP).Address_Resolution_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lin, a network technician, needs to configure a port on a switch to provide connectivity and electrical support to a WAP being installed in a warehouse. Which of the following features needs to be configured on the switch?
Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a technology that passes electrical power along with data on an Ethernet cable, thus providing power to the distant network device.
Power over Ethernet, or PoE, describes any of several standards or ad hoc systems that pass electric power along with data on twisted-pair Ethernet cabling. This allows a single cable to provide both data connection and electric power to devices such as wireless access points (WAPs), Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phones. There are several common techniques for transmitting power over Ethernet cabling. Three of them have been standardized by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard IEEE 802.3 since 2003. These standards are known as alternative A, alternative B, and 4PPoE. For 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX, only two of the four signal pairs in typical Cat 5 cable are used. Alternative B separates the data and the power conductors, making troubleshooting easier. It also makes full use of all four twisted pairs in a typical Cat 5 cable. The positive voltage runs along pins 4 and 5, and the negative along pins 7 and 8. Alternative A transports power on the same wires as data for 10 and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet variants. This is similar to the phantom power technique commonly used for powering condenser microphones. Power is transmitted on the data conductors by applying a common voltage to each pair. Because twisted-pair Ethernet uses differential signaling, this does not interfere with data transmission. The common-mode voltage is easily extracted using the center tap of the standard Ethernet pulse transformer. For Gigabit Ethernet and faster, both alternatives A and B transport power on wire pairsPower over Ethernet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Netstat is a Windows command line tool that will show you all current TCP/IP connections. IPCONFIG will show you you're current TCP/IP configuration, not connections.
In computing, netstat (network statistics) is a command-line network utility that displays network connections for Transmission Control Protocol (both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and a number of network interface (network interface controller or software-defined network interface) and network protocol statistics. It is available on Unix, Plan 9, Inferno, and Unix-like operating systems including macOS, Linux, Solaris and BSD. It is also available on IBM OS/2 and on Microsoft Windows NT-based operating systems including Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10. It is used for finding problems in the network and to determine the amount of traffic on the network as a performance measurement. On Linux this program is mostly obsolete, although still included in many distributions. On Linux, netstat (part of "net-tools") is superseded by ss (part of iproute2). The replacement for netstat -r is ip route, the replacement for netstat -i is ip -s link, and the replacement for netstat -g is ip maddr, all of which are recommended instead.Netstat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) uses TCP port 3389.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft which provides a user with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection. The user employs RDP client software for this purpose, while the other computer must run RDP server software. Clients exist for most versions of Microsoft Windows (including Windows Mobile), Linux (for example Remmina), Unix, macOS, iOS, Android, and other operating systems. RDP servers are built into Windows operating systems; an RDP server for Unix and OS X also exists (for example xrdp). By default, the server listens on TCP port 3389 and UDP port 3389.Microsoft currently refers to their official RDP client software as Remote Desktop Connection, formerly "Terminal Services Client". The protocol is an extension of the ITU-T T.128 application sharing protocol. Microsoft makes some specifications public on their website.Remote_Desktop_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Layer 3, the network layer, is the OSI model layer that uses logical (IP) addressing.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers.Network_layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nbtstat will query the network for hostnames, while nslookup queries for domain name to IP. Nbtstat is often found only on 64 bit (not 32 bit) Windows Operating Systems.
NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks NetBIOS was developed in the early 1980s, targeting very small networks (about a dozen computers) Some applications still use NetBIOS, and do not scale well in today's networks of hundreds of computers when NetBIOS is run over NBF When properly configured, NBT allows those applications to be run on large TCP/IP networks (including the whole Internet, although that is likely to be subject to security problems) without change NBT is defined by the RFC 1001 and RFC 1002 standard documentsNbtstat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) is a type of Ethernet that has an EMI resistant jacket. Because there are a large amount servers, STP is necessary. UTP should be avoided in data centers because they are susceptible to crosstalk. Fiber is incorrect because the question specifies we need a cost effective solutions. Typically, fiber will be used on trunk and backbone connections.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility. Compared to a single conductor or an untwisted balanced pair, a twisted pair reduces electromagnetic radiation from the pair and crosstalk between neighboring pairs and improves rejection of external electromagnetic interference. It was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.For additional noise immunity, twisted-pair cabling may be shielded. Cable with shielding is known as shielded twisted pair (STP) and without as unshielded twisted pair (UTP).Twisted_pair - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A network device designed to manage the distribution of a network's workload between near-identical resources is called:
A Load Balancer is a network device that distributes workloads between different resources like servers, routers and switches. For example, a large website may use a Load Balancer and multiple identical web servers to prevent from overloading a single device.
In computing, load balancing is the process of distributing a set of tasks over a set of resources (computing units), with the aim of making their overall processing more efficient. Load balancing can optimize the response time and avoid unevenly overloading some compute nodes while other compute nodes are left idle. Load balancing is the subject of research in the field of parallel computers. Two main approaches exist: static algorithms, which do not take into account the state of the different machines, and dynamic algorithms, which are usually more general and more efficient but require exchanges of information between the different computing units, at the risk of a loss of efficiency.Load_balancing_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You need to run cable through the airspace between offices, what type of cable is required to do this safely?
Plenum cable is jacketed in a fire-retardant plastic jacket.
Plenum cable is electrical cable that is laid in the plenum spaces of buildings. In the United States, plastics used in the construction of plenum cable are regulated under the National Fire Protection Association standard NFPA 90A: Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. All materials intended for use on wire and cables to be placed in plenum spaces are designed to meet rigorous fire safety test standards in accordance with NFPA 262 and outlined in NFPA 90A. Plenum cable is jacketed with a fire-retardant plastic jacket of either a low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP). Polyolefin formulations, specifically based on polyethylene compounding had been developed by at least two companies in the early to mid-1990s; however, these were never commercialized, and development efforts continue in these yet-untapped product potentials. Development efforts on a non-halogen plenum compound were announced in 2007 citing new flame-retardant synergist packages that may provide an answer for a yet-underdeveloped plenum cable market outside the United States. In 2006, significant concern developed over the potential toxicity of FEP and related fluorochemicals including the process aid perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or C8 such that California has proposed some of these materials as potential human carcinogens. The NFPA Technical Committee on Air Conditioning, in response to public comment, has referred the issue of toxicity of cabling materials to the NFPA Committee on Toxicity for review before 2008. In 2007, a development program specifically targeting the production of a non-halogen plenum cablePlenum_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In IPv6, link local addresses belong to the FE80::/10 address block. Link local is the IPv6 equivalent of IPv4's private addressing.
In computer networking, a link-local address is a network address that is valid only for communications within the subnetwork that the host is connected to. Link-local addresses are most often assigned automatically with a process known as stateless address autoconfiguration or link-local address autoconfiguration, also known as automatic private IP addressing (APIPA) or auto-IP. Link-local addresses are not guaranteed to be unique beyond their network segment. Therefore, routers do not forward packets with link-local source or destination addresses. IPv4 link-local addresses are assigned from address block 169.254.0.0/16 (169.254.0.0 through 169.254.255.255). In IPv6, they are assigned from the block fe80::/10.: 2.4Link-local address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The TCP protocol operates on layer 4, the Transport layer of the OSI model.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet protocol suite and the OSI model. The protocols of this layer provide end-to-end communication services for applications.: §1.1.3 It provides services such as connection-oriented communication, reliability, flow control, and multiplexing. The details of implementation and semantics of the transport layer of the Internet protocol suite, which is the foundation of the Internet, and the OSI model of general networking are different. The protocols in use today in this layer for the Internet all originated in the development of TCP/IP. In the OSI model the transport layer is often referred to as Layer 4, or L4, while numbered layers are not used in TCP/IP. The best-known transport protocol of the Internet protocol suite is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). It is used for connection-oriented transmissions, whereas the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used for simpler messaging transmissions. TCP is the more complex protocol, due to its stateful design incorporating reliable transmission and data stream services. Together, TCP and UDP comprise essentially all traffic on the Internet and are the only protocols implemented in every major operating system. Additional transport layer protocols that have been defined and implemented include the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) and the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).Transport layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The end-to-end security scheme Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) resides at which layer of the OSI model?
IPsec is used for Internet Protocol communications. This means it has to reside on the Network layer.
In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite that authenticates and encrypts packets of data to provide secure encrypted communication between two computers over an Internet Protocol network. It is used in virtual private networks (VPNs). IPsec includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of a session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to use during the session. IPsec can protect data flows between a pair of hosts (host-to-host), between a pair of security gateways (network-to-network), or between a security gateway and a host (network-to-host). IPsec uses cryptographic security services to protect communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It supports network-level peer authentication, data origin authentication, data integrity, data confidentiality (encryption), and replay protection (protection from replay attacks). The initial IPv4 suite was developed with few security provisions. As a part of the IPv4 enhancement, IPsec is a layer 3 OSI model or internet layer end-to-end security scheme. In contrast, while some other Internet security systems in widespread use operate above the network layer, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) that operates above the transport layer and Secure Shell (SSH) that operates at the application layer, IPsec can automatically secure applications at the internet layer.IPsec - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ipconfig command will present you with information on all NIC's on a computer or server.
ipconfig (standing for "Internet Protocol configuration") is a console application program of some computer operating systems that displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.Ipconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Full duplex transmission is when transmission between two parties can happen in both directions, simultaneously.
A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions. Duplex systems are employed in many communications networks, either to allow for simultaneous communication in both directions between two connected parties or to provide a reverse path for the monitoring and remote adjustment of equipment in the field. There are two types of duplex communication systems: full-duplex (FDX) and half-duplex (HDX). In a full-duplex system, both parties can communicate with each other simultaneously. An example of a full-duplex device is plain old telephone service; the parties at both ends of a call can speak and be heard by the other party simultaneously. The earphone reproduces the speech of the remote party as the microphone transmits the speech of the local party. There is a two-way communication channel between them, or more strictly speaking, there are two communication channels between them. In a half-duplex or semiduplex system, both parties can communicate with each other, but not simultaneously; the communication is one direction at a time. An example of a half-duplex device is a walkie-talkie, a two-way radio that has a push-to-talk button. When the local user wants to speak to the remote person, they push this button, which turns on the transmitter and turns off the receiver, preventing them from hearing the remote person while talking. To listen to the remote person, they release the button, which turns on the receiver and turns off theDuplex_(telecommunications) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
T568 is the technical name for the pin out of an RJ-45 cable. There are two types, T568A and T568B. A crossover cable has one of each end, while a straight through cable is the same on both ends. A straight through can be both T568B or T568A.
An Ethernet crossover cable is a crossover cable for Ethernet used to connect computing devices together directly. It is most often used to connect two devices of the same type, e.g. two computers (via their network interface controllers) or two switches to each other. By contrast, straight through patch cables are used to connect devices of different types, such as a computer to a network switch. Intentionally crossed wiring in the crossover cable connects the transmit signals at one end to the receive signals at the other end. Many network devices today support auto MDI-X (aka "auto crossover") capability, wherein a patch cable can be used in place of a crossover cable, or vice versa, and the receive and transmit signals are reconfigured automatically within the device to yield a working connection.Ethernet_crossover_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A server needs to be accessed at all times, with outages kept to a minimum. Using anything but static IP addresses will cause issues when clients attempt to access the server. If the Ip changed, the network and clients will have to learn about the change.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as 192.0.2.1 that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 192.0.2.1 in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g., 192.0.2.1/24, which is equivalent to the historically used subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), and other end users. IPv4 addresses were distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of approximately 16.8 million addresses each, but have been exhausted at the IANA level since 2011. Only one of the RIRs still has a supply for local assignments in Africa. Some IPv4 addresses are reserved for private networks and are not globally unique. Network administrators assign an IP address to each device connected to aIP_address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You suspect a hacker has accessed the network. Which of the following may help you confirm your suspicion?
System logs will show every event on an operating system. This is very useful to find if some one accessed the system, among many other things.
In computing, a log file is a file that records either events that occur in an operating system or other software runs, or messages between different users of a communication software Logging is the act of keeping a log In the simplest case, messages are written to a single log file A transaction log is a file (ie, log) of the communications between a system and the users of that system, or a data collection method that automatically captures the type, content, or time of transactions made by a person from a terminal with that system For Web searching, a transaction log is an electronic record of interactions that have occurred during a searching episode between a Web search engine and users searching for information on that Web search engineLogfile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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