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The CompTIA 220-902 exam is one of two exams requires to obtain the CompTIA A+ (900 series). This exam will cover operating systems like Windows, Macintosh OSX and Linux as well as topics like security, software troubleshooting and operational procedures.
Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) and Apple NetBoot are two examples of technologies that enable booting a computer system with the use of a network interface.
These allow an administrator to remotely load an operating system on a client computer without being physically there.
In computing, the Preboot eXecution Environment, PXE (most often pronounced as pixie, often called PXE Boot/pixie boot.) specification describes a standardized client–server environment that boots a software assembly, retrieved from a network, on PXE-enabled clients. On the client side it requires only a PXE-capable network interface controller (NIC), and uses a small set of industry-standard network protocols such as DHCP and TFTP. The concept behind the PXE originated in the early days of protocols like BOOTP/DHCP/TFTP, and as of 2015 it forms part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) standard. In modern data centers, PXE is the most frequent choice for operating system booting, installation and deployment.Preboot_Execution_Environment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You can use the Windows Task Scheduler to schedule updates while everyone is out of the office, or during the weekend. Where would you navigate to find the Windows Task Scheduler?
You would navigate to start > control panel > administrative tools > Task Scheduler, or simply search for task scheduler in the search bar.
In computing, scheduling is the action of assigning resources to perform tasks. The resources may be processors, network links or expansion cards. The tasks may be threads, processes or data flows. The scheduling activity is carried out by a process called scheduler. Schedulers are often designed so as to keep all computer resources busy (as in load balancing), allow multiple users to share system resources effectively, or to achieve a target quality-of-service. Scheduling is fundamental to computation itself, and an intrinsic part of the execution model of a computer system; the concept of scheduling makes it possible to have computer multitasking with a single central processing unit (CPU).Scheduling_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To troubleshoot applications running on a system by studying the usage of that application, you can use the Task Manager, and navigate to the Processes tab.
You would use the Processes tab to show each individual application's demand on the system's resources, while Performance tab is used to see the overall total usage on your systems resources.
Task Manager, previously known as Windows Task Manager, is a task manager, system monitor, and startup manager included with Microsoft Windows systems. It provides information about computer performance and running software, including name of running processes, CPU and GPU load, commit charge, I/O details, logged-in users, and Windows services. Task Manager can also be used to set process priorities, processor affinity, start and stop services, and forcibly terminate processes. The program can be started in recent versions of Windows by pressing ⊞ Win+R and then typing in taskmgr.exe, by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Delete and clicking Task Manager, by pressing Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc, by using Windows Search in the Start Menu and typing taskmgr, by right-clicking on the Windows taskbar and selecting "Task Manager", by typing taskmgr in the File Explorer address bar, or by typing taskmgr in Command Prompt or Windows PowerShell. Task Manager was introduced in its current form with Windows NT 4.0. Prior versions of Windows NT, as well as Windows 3.x, include the Task List application, are capable of listing currently running processes and killing them, or creating new processes. Windows 9x has a program known as Close Program which lists the programs currently running and offers options to close programs as well shut down the computer.Task_Manager_(Windows) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This command will run the Device Manager, which allows the administrator to view and manage hardware on the system
Device Manager is a component of the Microsoft Windows operating system. It allows users to view and control the hardware attached to the computer. When a piece of hardware is not working, the offending hardware is highlighted for the user to deal with. The list of hardware can be sorted by various criteria.For each device, users can: Supply device drivers in accordance with the Windows Driver Model Enable or disable devices Tell Windows to ignore malfunctioning devices View other technical properties Device Manager was introduced with Windows 95 and later added to Windows 2000. On Windows 9x, Device Manager is part of the System applet in Control Panel. On Windows 2000 and all other Windows NT-based versions of Windows, it is a snap-in for Microsoft Management Console.Device_Manager - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the Windows built-in software that monitors network traffic requests, and will determine whether to block or allow it depending on the settings?
Windows Firewall is a software firewall, that you can use to block or allow different requests. In Windows 10 it is called Windows Defender Firewall.
Windows Firewall (officially called Microsoft Defender Firewall in Windows 10 version 2004 and later) is a firewall component of Microsoft Windows. It was first included in Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP1. Before the release of Windows XP Service Pack 2, it was known as the "Internet Connection Firewall."Windows_Firewall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What does the /R switch of the CHKDSK utility do on Disk Operating System (DOS), OS/2, or windows systems?
The /r switch will locate bad sectors and recover the information it can from the drive.
In computing, CHKDSK (short for "check disk") is a system tool and command in DOS, Digital Research FlexOS, IBM/Toshiba 4690 OS, IBM OS/2, Microsoft Windows and related operating systems. It verifies the file system integrity of a volume and attempts to fix logical file system errors. It is similar to the fsck command in Unix and similar to Microsoft ScanDisk, which co-existed with CHKDSK in Windows 9x and MS-DOS 6.x.CHKDSK - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the type of installation on a Windows system that will wipe all the contents of that partition?
A clean installation will clean the partition, and provide a fresh installation on the system.
Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is the act of making the program ready for execution. Installation refers to the particular configuration of software or hardware with a view to making it usable with the computer. A soft or digital copy of the piece of software (program) is needed to install it. There are different processes of installing a piece of software (program). Because the process varies for each program and each computer, programs (including operating systems) often come with an installer, a specialised program responsible for doing whatever is needed (see below) for the installation. Installation may be part of a larger software deployment process.Installation typically involves code (program) being copied/generated from the installation files to new files on the local computer for easier access by the operating system, creating necessary directories, registering environment variables, providing a separate program for un-installation etc. Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than just erasing the program folder. For example, registry files and other system code may need to be modified or deleted for a complete uninstallation.Installation_(computer_programs) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which parameter of the Change Directory (CD) command in Windows moves the command-line prompt one folder up in the directory tree?
".." will allow you to move one folder up in the directory tree, while the / will change the directory and drive.
System Restore settings are found in the System Protection tab of the System Properties applet window. System Restore can be used to undo system changes by reverting a computer to a previous restore point. This is helpful if a newly installed application is causing issues (e.g. a buggy driver) or unwanted system configuration changes have been made (e.g. incorrect Windows Registry changes).
System Restore is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems. First included in Windows Me, it has been included in all following desktop versions of Windows released since, excluding Windows Server. In Windows 10, System Restore is turned off by default and must be enabled by users in order to function. This does not affect personal files such as documents, music, pictures, and videos. In prior Windows versions it was based on a file filter that watched changes for a certain set of file extensions, and then copied files before they were overwritten. An updated version of System Restore introduced by Windows Vista uses the Shadow Copy service as a backend (allowing block-level changes in files located in any directory on the volume to be monitored and backed up regardless of their location) and allows System Restore to be used from the Windows Recovery Environment in case the Windows installation no longer boots at all.System_Restore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To create the directory in command-line, you would use MKDIR or MD followed by the name of the directory you wish to create.
Hibernation mode will save the contents of the RAM to non-volatile memory for the duration of the powered down state. Sleep mode however, draws minimal power to keep the RAM from clearing.
Hibernation (also known as suspend to disk, or Safe Sleep on Macintosh computers) in computing is powering down a computer while retaining its state. When hibernation begins, the computer saves the contents of its random access memory (RAM) to a hard disk or other non-volatile storage. When the computer is turned on the RAM is restored and the computer is exactly as it was before entering hibernation. Hibernation was first implemented in 1992 and patented by Compaq Computer Corporation in Houston, Texas. Microsoft's Windows 10 employs a type of hibernation (fast startup) by default when shutting down.Hibernation_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When you use the COPY command, what switch would you use to verify that new files are written correctly?
The copy command can be used across many Operating Systems (OS). The switch /V will verify the new files are written correctly.
In computing, copy is a command in various operating systems. The command copies computer files from one directory to another.Copy_(command) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is the name of a Windows account that enables users to have temporary access to a computer without the capability to install software or hardware, or change settings called?
A user account that lacks permissions, and is temporary is typically a guest account. These accounts have minimal access.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service. A user often has a user account and is identified to the system by a username (or user name). Other terms for username include login name, screenname (or screen name), account name, nickname (or nick) and handle, which is derived from the identical citizens band radio term. Some software products provide services to other systems and have no direct end users.User_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the Device Manager, right click on the affected device, and navigate to "roll back driver".
When a program installed in Windows stops responding or encounters an error, logs describing the error can be examined with the use of:
Event Viewer shows all the logs and activities on your system. It can be accessed by searching "Event Viewer", or start > control panel > administrative tools > event viewer.
Event Viewer is a component of Microsoft's Windows NT operating system that lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine. Applications and operating-system components can use this centralized log service to report events that have taken place, such as a failure to start a component or to complete an action. In Windows Vista, Microsoft overhauled the event system.Due to the Event Viewer's routine reporting of minor start-up and processing errors (which do not, in fact, harm or damage the computer), the software is frequently used by technical support scammers to trick the victim into thinking that their computer contains critical errors requiring immediate technical support. An example is the "Administrative Events" field under "Custom Views" which can have over a thousand errors or warnings logged over a month's time.Event_Viewer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Where can you find a shortcut icon to the Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool while using Microsoft Windows 7?
In the control panel, navigate to Administrative Tools. Inside that option, you can find the Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool.
Control Panel is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the ability to view and change system settings. It consists of a set of applets that include adding or removing hardware and software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, and accessing networking settings. Additional applets are provided by third parties, such as audio and video drivers, VPN tools, input devices, and networking tools.Control_Panel_(Windows) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which Microsoft Windows version supports the use of the task bar on multiple monitors without the use of additional programs?
Windows 8 and later Windows 10 both come with multi-monitor task-bar support in the OS. The task bar in Windows is the GUI component typically at the bottom of the screen that shows the Windows start menu button, shortcuts, open programs & system tray.
The Taskbar is a graphical user interface element that has been part of Microsoft Windows since Windows 95, displaying and facilitating switching between running programs. The Taskbar and the associated Start Menu were created and named in 1993 by Daniel Oran, a program manager at Microsoft who had previously collaborated on Great ape language research with the behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner at Harvard.The Taskbar is an exemplar of a category of always-visible graphical user interface elements that provide access to fundamental operating system functions and information. At the time of its introduction in 1995, the Taskbar was unique among such elements because it provided the user with a means of switching between running programs through a single click of the pointing device. Since the introduction of Windows 95, other operating systems have incorporated graphical user interface elements that closely resemble the Taskbar or have similar features. The designs vary, but generally include a strip along one edge of the screen. Icons or textual descriptions on this strip correspond to open windows. Clicking the icons or text enables the user to easily switch between windows, with the active window often appearing differently from the others on the strip. In some versions of recent operating systems, users can "pin" programs or files to this strip for quick access. In many cases, there is also a notification area, which includes interactive icons that display real-time information about the computer system and some of the running programs. With the rapid evolution of operating systems and graphicalTaskbar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 4 GB maximum file size limit and 2 TB maximum partition size limit are the characteristic features of:
These limitations are only for the FAT32 file system and cannot be modified.
File Allocation Table (FAT) is a file system developed for personal computers and was the default filesystem for MS-DOS and Windows 9x operating systems. Originally developed in 1977 for use on floppy disks, it was adapted for use on hard disks and other devices. The increase in disk drives capacity required three major variants: FAT12, FAT16 and FAT32. FAT was replaced with NTFS as the default file system on Microsoft operating systems starting with Windows XP. Nevertheless, FAT continues to be used on flash and other solid-state memory cards and modules (including USB flash drives), many portable and embedded devices because of its compatibility and ease of implementation.File_Allocation_Table#FAT32 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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