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The CompTIA 220-901 exam is one of two exams requires to obtain the CompTIA A+ (900 series). This exam will cover operating systems like Windows, Macintosh OSX and Linux as well as topics like security, software troubleshooting and operational procedures.
Amanda, a user, has a laptop running Windows 7 Ultimate. She has asked the IT Department to update her laptop to run Windows 10 Pro. Which of the following should be done first?
Windows 10 and Windows 7 were released 6 years apart. It is possible her laptop does not meet the minimum requirements for Windows 10 and the laptop's specs should be verified first.
To be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer. These prerequisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system requirements: minimum and recommended. With increasing demand for higher processing power and resources in newer versions of software, system requirements tend to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest that this trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than technological advancements. A second meaning of the term of system requirements, is a generalisation of this first definition, giving the requirements to be met in the design of a system or sub-system.System_requirements - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Unfortunately the FAT32 file system does not allow for file and folder permissions like those that are commonly found on modern file systems, such as NTFS.
Which of the following Windows command line tools will provide a computer's network configuration information?
Ipconfig is a Windows command line tool that provides network information like the IP Address, MAC Address, and Subnet Mask.
ipconfig (standing for "Internet Protocol configuration") is a console application program of some computer operating systems that displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.Ipconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following will allow a Windows OS to boot with only the essentials like basic drivers, required programs and default settings?
Safe Mode, as it's name implies, can allow a Windows OS to safely BOOT even when a malicious software, invalid driver, or other issue is causing a system failure.
Safe mode is a diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS). It can also refer to a mode of operation by application software. Safe mode is intended to help fix most, if not all, problems within an operating system. It is also widely used for removing rogue security software.Safe_mode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following Windows commands can identify and repair corrupted information and other hard drive issues?
Check Disk (CHKDSK) is a Windows Repair tool for verifying volume integrity.
In computing, CHKDSK (short for "check disk") is a system tool and command in DOS, Digital Research FlexOS, IBM/Toshiba 4690 OS, IBM OS/2, Microsoft Windows and related operating systems. It verifies the file system integrity of a volume and attempts to fix logical file system errors. It is similar to the fsck command in Unix and similar to Microsoft ScanDisk, which co-existed with CHKDSK in Windows 9x and MS-DOS 6.x.CHKDSK - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a desktop technician for a public school district. Your supervisor has asked you to write a script that will configure the wireless adapters on student's Linux based laptops to connect only to authorized access point. Assuming the access point's MAC Address is 00:0D:9D:C6:38:2D, which command will help you achieve this?
IWCONFIG is a Linux command line tool for configuring wireless settings. IWCONFIG can be used to change settings like authorized access points, signal strength, wireless channel, and what SSID to connect to. IP Address, subnet mask and DNS servers are still configured via IFCONFIG.
Wireless tools for Linux is a collection of user-space utilities written for Linux kernel-based operating systems to support and facilitate the configuration of device drivers of wireless network interface controllers and some related aspects of networking using the Linux Wireless Extension. The Wireless tools for Linux and Linux Wireless Extension are maintained by Jean Tourrilhes and sponsored by Hewlett-Packard.Wireless_tools_for_Linux#iwconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After installing Windows 10 on a Laptop PC alongside an existing Red Hat Linux installation you receive a message stating that the GRUB file is missing when you try to boot the PC. Which of the following is the best option?
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) is an open source technology commonly used to allow multiple operating systems to boot on a single machine. GRUB is commonly used as the default boot loader for Linux, but it is compatible with Windows also. When Windows 10 was installed the GRUB was replaced or corrupted and using the Linux installation CD to restore it is your best option.
GNU GRUB (short for GNU GRand Unified Bootloader, commonly referred to as GRUB) is a boot loader package from the GNU Project. GRUB is the reference implementation of the Free Software Foundation's Multiboot Specification, which provides a user the choice to boot one of multiple operating systems installed on a computer or select a specific kernel configuration available on a particular operating system's partitions. GNU GRUB was developed from a package called the Grand Unified Bootloader (a play on Grand Unified Theory). It is predominantly used for Unix-like systems. The GNU operating system uses GNU GRUB as its boot loader, as do most Linux distributions and the Solaris operating system on x86 systems, starting with the Solaris 10 1/06 release.GNU_GRUB - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following terms describes a folder's permissions defaulting to match the permissions of it's parent's folder?
Inheritance is when an computer object, like a file or folder inherits settings from it's parent. For example, if a user does not have read access to a folder, they also cannot read any files or sub folders of that directory.
You are installing Windows Server 2008 R2 onto a new company file server that uses a RAID card. You have verified that all cabling is correctly seated, but Windows is not recognizing any storage mediums for installation. Which of the following will most likely correct the issue?
Many RAID cards require a vendor specific driver to function with Windows. In order to install Windows, you first need to provide it with the proper RAID driver.
You need to download and install a package using the apt-get command on an Ubuntu environment. After running the command you receive an error stating you do not have permissions to perform this action. What should you do next?
Placing sudo (SuperUser Do) in front of a command in some Linux environments will run the command with the security privileges of the root account. Once the command finishes the privileges will be removed and are not applied to any further commands or applications. (unless they are also run with sudo)
sudo ( or ) is a program for Unix-like computer operating systems that enables users to run programs with the security privileges of another user, by default the superuser. It originally stood for "superuser do", as that was all it did, and it is its most common usage; however, the official Sudo project page lists it as "su 'do' ". The current Linux manual pages for su define it as "substitute user", making the correct meaning of sudo "substitute user, do", because sudo can run a command as other users as well.Unlike the similar command su, users must, by default, supply their own password for authentication, rather than the password of the target user. After authentication, and if the configuration file (typically /etc/sudoers) permits the user access, the system invokes the requested command. The configuration file offers detailed access permissions, including enabling commands only from the invoking terminal; requiring a password per user or group; requiring re-entry of a password every time or never requiring a password at all for a particular command line. It can also be configured to permit passing arguments or multiple commands.Sudo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a network administrator for a large company. Several network users have complained that they are receiving odd emails from another user, who claims they have not sent any emails today. Which of the following will most likely stop the issue?
Changing the account password will most likely solve the issue, but better preventatives should be put in place as soon as possible. Spam filters typically ignore local emails, which is why this is not the correct answer.
Email filtering is the processing of email to organize it according to specified criteria. The term can apply to the intervention of human intelligence, but most often refers to the automatic processing of messages at an SMTP server, possibly applying anti-spam techniques. Filtering can be applied to incoming emails as well as to outgoing ones. Depending on the calling environment, email filtering software can reject an item at the initial SMTP connection stage or pass it through unchanged for delivery to the user's mailbox. It is also possible to redirect the message for delivery elsewhere, quarantine it for further checking, modify it or 'tag' it in any other way.Email_filtering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A technician is accessing a Windows PC via SSH. Which command can the technician use to create a new directory on the PC?
MD (same as MKDIR) is a command used to create a new folder or directory in a Windows environment.
The mkdir (make directory) command in the Unix, DOS, DR FlexOS, IBM OS/2, Microsoft Windows, and ReactOS operating systems is used to make a new directory. It is also available in the EFI shell and in the PHP scripting language. In DOS, OS/2, Windows and ReactOS, the command is often abbreviated to md. The command is analogous to the Stratus OpenVOS create_dir command. MetaComCo TRIPOS and AmigaDOS provide a similar MakeDir command to create new directories. The numerical computing environments MATLAB and GNU Octave include an mkdir function with similar functionality.Mkdir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You have just configured permissions for a set of folders on an NTFS disk, the folders also have another set of share permissions. When a user connects to one of these folders through a network share, which of the following is true?
When accessing through a network share both NTFS and share permissions will apply. When accessing a file or folder directly only NTFS permissions will apply. In either case the principle of least privilege will apply and the most restrictive permissions will always take priority.
There's no firewall or antivirus that can protect from Social Engineering. The best solution is to teach users how to identify and avoid Social Engineering.
In the context of information security, social engineering is the psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. A type of confidence trick for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or system access, it differs from a traditional "con" in that it is often one of many steps in a more complex fraud scheme. It has also been defined as "any act that influences a person to take an action that may or may not be in their best interests."An example of social engineering is an attacker calling a help desk, impersonating someone else, and claiming to have forgotten their password. If the help desk worker resets the password, it grants the attacker full access to the account.Social_engineering_(security) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Open Source software is a software application whose code is publicly available for review, modification and enhancement.
Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration. A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology, and open-source drug discovery.Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers have used a variety of other terms. Open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet. The open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues. Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design. Code is released under the terms of a software license. Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version (fork) back to the community. Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source movement, including the Apache Software Foundation, which supports community projects such as the open-source framework Apache Hadoop and theOpen_source - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your employer has recently began investigating an employee for using a computer to host and share illegal materials. You have been asked to keep track of the computer's hard drive until it is turned over to the proper authorities. What term best defines this situation?
In this situation you need to ensure proper Chain of Custody. Chain of Custody is a record of evidence's ownership. Anyone who has had control of the evidence should be recorded to include when and where they had it. The Chain of Custody can be used as a legal document to proof no one has altered or deleted data since discovered.
Chain of custody (CoC), in legal contexts, is the chronological documentation or paper trail that records the sequence of custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of materials, including physical or electronic evidence. Of particular importance in criminal cases, the concept is also applied in civil litigation and more broadly in drug testing of athletes and in supply chain management, e.g. to improve the traceability of food products, or to provide assurances that wood products originate from sustainably managed forests. It is often a tedious process that has been required for evidence to be shown legally in court. Now, however, with new portable technology that allows accurate laboratory quality results from the scene of the crime, the chain of custody is often much shorter which means evidence can be processed for court much faster. The term is also sometimes used in the fields of history, art history, and archives as a synonym for provenance (meaning the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object, document or group of documents), which may be an important factor in determining authenticity.Chain_of_custody - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which Windows tool can prevent programs from automatically opening upon start up on the Windows 7 Operating System?
The MSCONFIG tool, officially called the System Configuration tool has several features for troubleshooting and modifying the start up process.
MSConfig (officially called System Configuration in Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, or Windows 11 and Microsoft System Configuration Utility in previous operating systems) is a system utility to troubleshoot the Microsoft Windows startup process. It can disable or re-enable software, device drivers and Windows services that run at startup, or change boot parameters. It is bundled with all versions of Microsoft Windows operating systems since Windows 98 except Windows 2000. Windows 95 and Windows 2000 users can download the utility as well, although it was not designed for them.MSConfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You have been instructed to configure a database server running Windows Server 2008 to alert technicians when the server's processor or memory is running above 75% capacity. Which of the following technologies will help you achieve this?
Performance monitor is a Windows tool that can be used to monitor and log a system's health and status in real time. Task Manager can display similar information but does not log and should only be used as a quick reference.
A system monitor is a hardware or software component used to monitor system resources and performance in a computer systemAmong the management issues regarding use of system monitoring tools are resource usage and privacySystem_Monitor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A malicious user has gained access to several user accounts by guessing their password. The malicious user was able to guess passwords using a list of commonly used phrases and words. Which of the following terms best describes this type of attack?
A Dictionary Attack uses a list of preset words, phrases and commonly used passwords.
In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is an attack using a restricted subset of a keyspace to defeat a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or passphrase, sometimes trying thousands or millions of likely possibilities often obtained from lists of past security breaches.Dictionary_attack - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The trouble shooting theory is as follows: 1. Identify the problem, 2. Establish a theory of probable cause, 3. Test the theory to determine cause, 4. Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement the solution, 5. Verify full system functionality and if applicable implement preventive measures, 6. Document findings, actions and outcomes
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