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The CompTIA 220-901 exam is one of two exams requires to obtain the CompTIA A+ (900 series). This exam will cover topics like networking, mobile devices and hardware and network troubleshooting.
You work in IT for a retailer that is looking to add new methods of payment to the POS devices.
You are currently in a meeting meeting with multiple different teams from IT brainstorming different technologies that could be implemented to meet the requirement listed above. You remember hearing about a sleek new method of payment supported by mobile devices on the Android and iOS platforms. You suggest implementing:
Near-Field Communication (NFC) is a method of mobile, contact-less payment commonly implemented by retailers, allowing customers to pay with their smartphone.
Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enables communication between two electronic devices over a distance of 4 cm (11⁄2 in) or less. NFC offers a low-speed connection through a simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more-capable wireless connections. Like other "proximity card" technologies, NFC is based on inductive coupling between two so-called antennas present on NFC-enabled devices—for example a smartphone and a printer—communicating in one or both directions, using a frequency of 13.56 MHz in the globally available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band using the ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface standard at data rates ranging from 106 to 424 kbit/s. The standards were provided by the NFC Forum. The forum was responsible for promoting the technology and setting standards and certifies device compliance. Secure communications are available by applying encryption algorithms as is done for credit cards and if they fit the criteria for being considered a personal area network.NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats and are based on existing radio-frequency identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa. The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC Forum. In addition to the NFC Forum, the GSMA group defined a platform for the deployment of GSMA NFC Standards within mobile handsets. GSMA's efforts include Trusted Services Manager, Single Wire Protocol, testing/certification and secure element. NFC-enabled portable devices can be provided with application software, for example to read electronic tags or make payments when connected to an NFC-compliant system. These are standardized to NFC protocols,Near-field_communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
USB 1.1 Supports Low-Speed and Full-Speed modes. Low-speed is typically used for peripherals that do not require high rates of data transfer, such as game controllers. Full-speed is used for anything requiring data transfer.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply (interfacing) between computers, peripherals and other computers A broad variety of USB hardware exists, including eleven different connectors, of which USB-C is the most recent Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) There have been four generations of USB specifications: USB 1x, USB 20, USB 3x, and USB4USB#USB_1.x - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The formal module name for DDR2-1066 RAM is PC2-8500, according to JDEC standards.
Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DDR2 SDRAM) is a double data rate (DDR) synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) interface. It superseded the original DDR SDRAM specification, and was itself superseded by DDR3 SDRAM (launched in 2007). DDR2 DIMMs are neither forward compatible with DDR3 nor backward compatible with DDR. In addition to double pumping the data bus as in DDR SDRAM (transferring data on the rising and falling edges of the bus clock signal), DDR2 allows higher bus speed and requires lower power by running the internal clock at half the speed of the data bus. The two factors combine to produce a total of four data transfers per internal clock cycle. Since the DDR2 internal clock runs at half the DDR external clock rate, DDR2 memory operating at the same external data bus clock rate as DDR results in DDR2 being able to provide the same bandwidth but with better latency. Alternatively, DDR2 memory operating at twice the external data bus clock rate as DDR may provide twice the bandwidth with the same latency. The best-rated DDR2 memory modules are at least twice as fast as the best-rated DDR memory modules. The maximum capacity on commercially available DDR2 DIMMs is 8GB, but chipset support and availability for those DIMMs is sparse and more common 2GB per DIMM are used.DDR2_SDRAM - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are installing a hard drive into a desktop PC. The best way to connect the hard drive on a modern client that will be used in an office setting for word processing and running an online email client would be via:
While all of the answers are valid methods of connecting a hard drive, SATA is the most preferred method on a client PC in the constraints of the question.
This is due to SATA most closely matching the throughput requirements of a client PC, being a modern storage connector, and not requiring additional adapters for buses that may not be present on a modern motherboard.
Hard disk drives are accessed over one of a number of bus types, including parallel ATA (PATA, also called IDE or EIDE; described before the introduction of SATA as ATA), Serial ATA (SATA), SCSI, Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), and Fibre Channel. Bridge circuitry is sometimes used to connect hard disk drives to buses with which they cannot communicate natively, such as IEEE 1394, USB, SCSI, NVMe and Thunderbolt.Hard_disk_drive_interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You work for a company that has created what is anticipated to be the best selling tablet ever created. It is expected that everyone on Earth will own one of the new tablets in the next five years.
You are working on the network support division and are tasked with implementing internet connectivity on the device. To address demand you believe it would be best to implement support for:
Choose the best answer.
There are roughly seven billion people on Earth. IPv4 only supports 4.29 billion addresses.
IPv6 supports roughly 3.4Ã—1038 addresses, allowing for every user on Earth to utilize your device online.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion, and is intended to replace IPv4. In December 1998, IPv6 became a Draft Standard for the IETF, which subsequently ratified it as an Internet Standard on 14 July 2017.Devices on the Internet are assigned a unique IP address for identification and location definition. With the rapid growth of the Internet after commercialization in the 1990s, it became evident that far more addresses would be needed to connect devices than the IPv4 address space had available. By 1998, the IETF had formalized the successor protocol. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, theoretically allowing 2128, or approximately 3.4×1038 total addresses. The actual number is slightly smaller, as multiple ranges are reserved for special use or completely excluded from use. The two protocols are not designed to be interoperable, and thus direct communication between them is impossible, complicating the move to IPv6. However, several transition mechanisms have been devised to rectify this. IPv6 provides other technical benefits in addition to a larger addressing space. In particular, it permits hierarchical address allocation methods that facilitate route aggregation across the Internet, and thus limit the expansion of routing tables. The use of multicast addressing is expanded and simplified, and provides additional optimization forIPv6#IPv4 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A RAM module has gone out on your laptop and requires replacement. Without opening the laptop up or possessing any additional knowledge about your system, you know that you will most likely need to replace the module with a ______ type module.
Laptop and mobile devices typically utilize SO-DIMM type RAM modules, as these modules are smaller in form factor than typical DIMM modules.
While DDR 3 or DDR 4 could be an answer, this would require more detailed information about the motherboard on your system.
If you got this one right, you're not SO DIMM.
(Sorry for the pun; I couldn't help myself)
A SO-DIMM (pronounced "so-dimm" , also spelled "SODIMM") or small outline DIMM, is a type of computer memory built using integrated circuits. A SO-DIMM is a smaller alternative to a DIMM, being roughly half the physical size of a regular DIMM. SO-DIMMs are often used in systems that have limited space, which include laptops, notebooks, small-footprint personal computers such as those based on Nano-ITX motherboards, high-end upgradable office printers, and networking hardware such as routers and NAS devices. They are usually available with the same size data path and speed ratings of the regular DIMMs though normally with smaller capacities.SO-DIMM - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You have been tasked with making Ethernet cables of custom length for a server room refresh. Your coworker sends you to get a tool from the cabinet to utilize while making the new cables.
Choose the most necessary tool below:
A wire-stripper and crimper is the most necessary tool to successfully make a new cable. This tool allows for you to correctly expose the wiring of the twisted pair cable and crimp on an 8P8C termination.
A modular connector is a type of electrical connector for cords and cables of electronic devices and appliances, such as in computer networking, telecommunication equipment, and audio headsets. Modular connectors were originally developed for use on specific Bell System telephone sets in the 1960s, and similar types found use for simple interconnection of customer-provided telephone subscriber premises equipment to the telephone network. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated in 1976 an interface registration system, in which they became known as registered jacks. The convenience of prior existence for designers and ease of use led to a proliferation of modular connectors for many other applications. Many applications that originally used bulkier, more expensive connectors have converted to modular connectors. Probably the best-known applications of modular connectors are for telephone and Ethernet. Accordingly, various electronic interface specifications exist for applications using modular connectors, which prescribe physical characteristics and assign electrical signals to their contacts.Modular_connector#8P8C - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Multiple users have complained that they cannot access servers via RDP. You know that you should check to ensure that the following port is opened:
Remote Desktop Protocol utilizes port 3389 to function. If this port is closed RDP will not work.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft which provides a user with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection. The user employs RDP client software for this purpose, while the other computer must run RDP server software. Clients exist for most versions of Microsoft Windows (including Windows Mobile), Linux (for example Remmina), Unix, macOS, iOS, Android, and other operating systems. RDP servers are built into Windows operating systems; an RDP server for Unix and OS X also exists (for example xrdp). By default, the server listens on TCP port 3389 and UDP port 3389.Microsoft currently refers to their official RDP client software as Remote Desktop Connection, formerly "Terminal Services Client". The protocol is an extension of the ITU-T T.128 application sharing protocol. Microsoft makes some specifications public on their website.Remote_Desktop_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your boss has requested that you make the PC clients in the public area of the building more resistant to being tampered with. You recall seeing a setting in the BIOS of the clients called chassis intrusion detection which notes if the PC's case has been opened and reports this in the next boot. You set to implementing this because you believe that chassis intrusion detection does not require additional hardware, which your PC's are not equipped with. Does it function?
Chassis intrusion detection requires a sensor mounted inside of the case in order to function.
The Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is a set of computer interface specifications for an autonomous computer subsystem that provides management and monitoring capabilities independently of the host system's CPU, firmware (BIOS or UEFI) and operating system. IPMI defines a set of interfaces used by system administrators for out-of-band management of computer systems and monitoring of their operation. For example, IPMI provides a way to manage a computer that may be powered off or otherwise unresponsive by using a network connection to the hardware rather than to an operating system or login shell. Another use case may be installing a custom operating system remotely. Without IPMI, installing a custom operating system may require an administrator to be physically present near the computer, insert a DVD or a USB flash drive containing the OS installer and complete the installation process using a monitor and a keyboard. Using IPMI, an administrator can mount an ISO image, simulate an installer DVD, and perform the installation remotely.The specification is led by Intel and was first published on September 16, 1998. It is supported by more than 200 computer system vendors, such as Cisco, Dell, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Intel.The successor to the IPMI is Redfish.Intelligent_Platform_Management_Interface#Functionality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user has reported that their desktop PC cannot connect to drive locations on the network. The user is utilizing a wired connection.
DHCP is being utilized in your network.
Choose the most correct first step in troubleshooting:
Utilizing the command prompt and the ipconfig command, you should first determine if the user is receiving an IP within the network's scope. If the user is receiving an in-scope IP address this means that they have network connectivity and the issue likely lies outside of the Link Layer.
ipconfig (standing for "Internet Protocol configuration") is a console application program of some computer operating systems that displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.Ipconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The PCI expansion slot in a laptop is referred to as miniPCI. These slots can be used for an array of different add-ons, including WiFi cards.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer and is part of the PCI Local Bus standard The PCI bus supports the functions found on a processor bus but in a standardized format that is independent of any given processor's native bus Devices connected to the PCI bus appear to a bus master to be connected directly to its own bus and are assigned addresses in the processor's address space It is a parallel bus, synchronous to a single bus clock Attached devices can take either the form of an integrated circuit fitted onto the motherboard (called a planar device in the PCI specification) or an expansion card that fits into a slotConventional_PCI#Mini_PCI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Users are having a hard time remembering the IP address for a commonly used network resource.
The IP address is statically set and the connection is established over port 443.
You know that you have a tool that can solve this issue on your Domain Controller. You log on and configure:
A DNS record should be established for this network resource. DNS records allow users to access a resource via a name, rather than having to remember a complex IP address.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized naming system used to identify computers reachable through the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP) networks. The resource records contained in the DNS associate domain names with other forms of information. These are most commonly used to map human-friendly domain names to the numerical IP addresses computers need to locate services and devices using the underlying network protocols, but have been extended over time to perform many other functions as well. The Domain Name System has been an essential component of the functionality of the Internet since 1985.Domain_Name_System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user has lost the charging cable for their company issued Android smartphone. You are tasked with providing them with a replacement. The user has requested that they need not utilize an adapter to make the cable work with their device.
While you would need to know the specific make and model of the device to supply the correct charging cable, you can immediately rule out one of the following cables:
USB Type B connectors are typically utilized for connecting devices such as printers and while they can provide power to devices, they are not used with Android devices. Remember to read the question carefully! It is asking which cable is the least likely to be correct!
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply (interfacing) between computers, peripherals and other computers A broad variety of USB hardware exists, including eleven different connectors, of which USB-C is the most recent Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) There have been four generations of USB specifications: USB 1x, USB 20, USB 3x, and USB4USB#Connector_types - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You work for a struggling IT company and suspect that it will soon be bankrupt. Your boss has recently taken out a large insurance policy on the data center.
One morning, your boss sheepishly approaches you about re-cabling the entire data center and asks too many questions about fire-ratings.
Which of the following cable types should be used to mitigate the damage of your boss' s suspected insurance fraud scheme?
Plenum-rated cable is the best type of cable to be used for fire-resistance, as it produces the least smoke and is fire-retardant. Jokes aside you should report your boss to the local authorities.
Plenum cable is electrical cable that is laid in the plenum spaces of buildings. In the United States, plastics used in the construction of plenum cable are regulated under the National Fire Protection Association standard NFPA 90A: Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. All materials intended for use on wire and cables to be placed in plenum spaces are designed to meet rigorous fire safety test standards in accordance with NFPA 262 and outlined in NFPA 90A. Plenum cable is jacketed with a fire-retardant plastic jacket of either a low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP). Polyolefin formulations, specifically based on polyethylene compounding had been developed by at least two companies in the early to mid-1990s; however, these were never commercialized, and development efforts continue in these yet-untapped product potentials. Development efforts on a non-halogen plenum compound were announced in 2007 citing new flame-retardant synergist packages that may provide an answer for a yet-underdeveloped plenum cable market outside the United States. In 2006, significant concern developed over the potential toxicity of FEP and related fluorochemicals including the process aid perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or C8 such that California has proposed some of these materials as potential human carcinogens. The NFPA Technical Committee on Air Conditioning, in response to public comment, has referred the issue of toxicity of cabling materials to the NFPA Committee on Toxicity for review before 2008. In 2007, a development program specifically targeting the production of a non-halogen plenum cablePlenum_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For security reasons, you've created a script on a server that monitors if non-domain users have been added to the local administrators group. You've added logic to the script that sends an email out every time the script is run.
Your script utilizes SMTP for its reporting. Select the port that you will need to ensure is open for your script to send emails.
Port 25 is the port that SMTP utilizes to send emails. You will also need to list a functioning SMTP server in your script for this to work.
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard communication protocol for electronic mail transmission. Mail servers and other message transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages. User-level email clients typically use SMTP only for sending messages to a mail server for relaying, and typically submit outgoing email to the mail server on port 587 or 465 per RFC 8314. For retrieving messages, IMAP (which replaced the older POP3) is standard, but proprietary servers also often implement proprietary protocols, e.g., Exchange ActiveSync. SMTP's origins began in 1980, building on concepts implemented on the ARPANET since 1971. It has been updated, modified and extended multiple times. The protocol version in common use today has extensible structure with various extensions for authentication, encryption, binary data transfer, and internationalized email addresses. SMTP servers commonly use the Transmission Control Protocol on port number 25 (for plaintext) and 587 (for encrypted communications).Simple_Mail_Transfer_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The northbridge chipset of a motherboard handles communication between all of the following, except:
The northbridge chipset handles the "faster" aspects of motherboard performance.
In computing, a northbridge (also host bridge, or memory controller hub) is one of two chips comprising the core logic chipset architecture on a PC motherboard. A northbridge is connected directly to a CPU via the front-side bus (FSB) to handle high-performance tasks, and is usually used in conjunction with a slower southbridge to manage communication between the CPU and other parts of the motherboard. Since the 2010s, die shrink and improved transistor density have allowed for increasing chipset integration, and the functions performed by northbridges are now often incorporated into other components (like southbridges or CPUs themselves). As of 2019, Intel and AMD had both released chipsets in which all northbridge functions had been integrated into the CPU. Modern Intel Core processors have the northbridge integrated on the CPU die, where it is known as the uncore or system agent. On older Intel based PCs, the northbridge was also named external memory controller hub (MCH) or graphics and memory controller hub (GMCH) if equipped with integrated graphics. Increasingly these functions became integrated into the CPU chip itself, beginning with memory and graphics controllers. For Intel Sandy Bridge and AMD Accelerated Processing Unit processors introduced in 2011, all of the functions of the northbridge reside on the CPU. The corresponding southbridge was renamed by Intel as the Platform Controller Hub and by AMD as the Fusion controller hub. AMD FX CPUs continued to require external northbridge and southbridge chips. Historically, separation of functions between CPU, northbridge, and southbridge chips was necessary dueNorthbridge_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When installing a new CPU or cleaning a computer case as part of regular maintenance, where is thermal compound applied?
Thermal compound should be applied in a thin layer between the CPU and the heat sink for proper heat transfer.
Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits. Components that are susceptible to temporary malfunction or permanent failure if overheated include integrated circuits such as central processing units (CPUs), chipsets, graphics cards, and hard disk drives. Components are often designed to generate as little heat as possible, and computers and operating systems may be designed to reduce power consumption and consequent heating according to workload, but more heat may still be produced than can be removed without attention to cooling. Use of heatsinks cooled by airflow reduces the temperature rise produced by a given amount of heat. Attention to patterns of airflow can prevent the development of hotspots. Computer fans are widely used along with heatsink fans to reduce temperature by actively exhausting hot air. There are also more exotic cooling techniques, such as liquid cooling. All modern day processors are designed to cut out or reduce their voltage or clock speed if the internal temperature of the processor exceeds a specified limit. This is generally known as Thermal Throttling, in the case of reduction of clock speeds or Thermal Shutdown in the case of a complete shutdown of the device or system. Cooling may be designed to reduce the ambient temperature within the case of a computer, such as by exhausting hot air, or to cool a single component or small area (spot cooling). Components commonly individually cooled include the CPU, graphics processing unit (GPU) and the northbridge.Computer_cooling#Heat-sinks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are building a new, high performance personal desktop PC and are deciding on a motherboard. Not considering overclock-ability, to maximize performance and future capacity to upgrade, you should choose a motherboard with the following supported RAM slots:
DDR4 SDRAM is the most current revision of the SDRAM standard and features the highest bus and memory clock speeds currently available. GDDR modules are reserved for use in GPU's.
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DDR SDRAM) is a double data rate (DDR) synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. DDR SDRAM, also retroactively called DDR1 SDRAM, has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, DDR4 SDRAM and DDR5 SDRAM. None of its successors are forward or backward compatible with DDR1 SDRAM, meaning DDR2, DDR3, DDR4 and DDR5 memory modules will not work in DDR1-equipped motherboards, and vice versa. Compared to single data rate (SDR) SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals. Implementations often have to use schemes such as phase-locked loops and self-calibration to reach the required timing accuracy. The interface uses double pumping (transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal) to double data bus bandwidth without a corresponding increase in clock frequency. One advantage of keeping the clock frequency down is that it reduces the signal integrity requirements on the circuit board connecting the memory to the controller. The name "double data rate" refers to the fact that a DDR SDRAM with a certain clock frequency achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of a SDR SDRAM running at the same clock frequency, due to this double pumping. With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR SDRAM gives a transfer rate (in bytes/s) of (memory bus clock rate) × 2 (for dual rate) × 64 (number of bits transferred)DDR_SDRAM#Variations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user has hooked their Windows 7 laptop up to a projector in one of your office's conference rooms and you receive a call to assist them in projecting their content in the desired manner.
The user would like to have their laptop display not feature any content, while still allowing the projector to display a presentation. You should direct the user to utilize the following setting:
Projection settings can be accessed via Windows + P.
Windows 7 does not feature a built-in function to accomplish specifically what the user has requested. In this case, the best setting to utilize would be "Extend" as the user can send their presentation to the extended projector display while leaving the laptop to display the Windows desktop.
"Second Screen Only" would be the best overall option, however it is only available on Windows 10 and would not be an option in this case.
In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software. Most keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously (indicated in the tables below by the + sign). Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout.Table_of_keyboard_shortcuts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are experiencing issues on your network and cannot determine where packets are being lost and connectivity is breaking down. You should utilize:
Traceroute allows you to determine where connectivity is failing on your network.
In computing, traceroute and tracert are computer network diagnostic commands for displaying possible routes (paths) and measuring transit delays of packets across an Internet Protocol (IP) network. The history of the route is recorded as the round-trip times of the packets received from each successive host (remote node) in the route (path); the sum of the mean times in each hop is a measure of the total time spent to establish the connection. Traceroute proceeds unless all (usually three) sent packets are lost more than twice; then the connection is lost and the route cannot be evaluated. Ping, on the other hand, only computes the final round-trip times from the destination point. For Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) the tool sometimes has the name traceroute6 and tracert6.Traceroute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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