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The CompTIA 220-901 exam is one of two exams requires to obtain the CompTIA A+ (900 series). This exam will cover topics like networking, mobile devices and hardware and network troubleshooting.
The clock on your computer keeps falling out of sync, you have to set it each time you restart the computer or power it on. The offset is never consistent. What should you do to correct this issue?
Since the offset is inconsistent and the clock issues seem to revolve around the system not being powered on it could be a CMOS battery issue. If it were an NTP (port 321) or timezone issue you would likely see a consistent offset. None of these symptoms are typical of an overheating system.
Nonvolatile BIOS memory refers to a small memory on PC motherboards that is used to store BIOS settings. It is traditionally called CMOS RAM because it uses a volatile, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) SRAM (such as the Motorola MC146818 or similar) powered by a small "CMOS" battery when system and standby power is off. It is referred to as non-volatile memory or NVRAM because, after the system loses power, it does retain state by virtue of the CMOS battery. The typical NVRAM capacity is 256 bytes.The CMOS RAM and the real-time clock have been integrated as a part of the southbridge chipset and it may not be a standalone chip on modern motherboards. In turn, the southbridge have been integrated into a single Platform Controller Hub. Today's UEFI motherboards use NVRAM to store configuration data (NVRAM is a part of the UEFI flash ROM), but by many OEMs' design, the UEFI settings are still lost if the CMOS battery fails.Nonvolatile_BIOS_memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user working in a warehouse calls and tells you that his computer keeps freezing or rebooting at random, it makes an annoying high-pitch squeak/squeal when running. What is likely to be the issue?
Warehouses are often very dusty, which could cause a fan to stop working and promote overheating. These symptoms (freezing/rebooting) indicate overheating, the noise could be a failing fan. These symptoms do not indicate a battery issue or sticky keys. They could a bad driver, but coupled with the noise it and location is not likely.
Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits. Components that are susceptible to temporary malfunction or permanent failure if overheated include integrated circuits such as central processing units (CPUs), chipsets, graphics cards, and hard disk drives. Components are often designed to generate as little heat as possible, and computers and operating systems may be designed to reduce power consumption and consequent heating according to workload, but more heat may still be produced than can be removed without attention to cooling. Use of heatsinks cooled by airflow reduces the temperature rise produced by a given amount of heat. Attention to patterns of airflow can prevent the development of hotspots. Computer fans are widely used along with heatsink fans to reduce temperature by actively exhausting hot air. There are also more exotic cooling techniques, such as liquid cooling. All modern day processors are designed to cut out or reduce their voltage or clock speed if the internal temperature of the processor exceeds a specified limit. This is generally known as Thermal Throttling, in the case of reduction of clock speeds or Thermal Shutdown in the case of a complete shutdown of the device or system. Cooling may be designed to reduce the ambient temperature within the case of a computer, such as by exhausting hot air, or to cool a single component or small area (spot cooling). Components commonly individually cooled include the CPU, graphics processing unit (GPU) and the northbridge.Computer_cooling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cursor on your laptop keeps drifting in the same direction, you disconnect your mouse and this continues to happen regardless of you using the touchpad. What actions can you take to remedy this?
The touchpad is likely damaged or has driver issues, a temporary fix might be disabling it and using a mouse. There is no indication that mouse drivers are causing this problem. The arrow keys and Scroll Lock do not usually influence cursor movement.
You are configuring a static IP address on a Windows system and realize the netmask is written as "/25," what is the proper way to input this into the network configuration for this system?
255.255.255.128 is the correct answer. Windows does not allow you to input CIDR for network configurations. 255.255.255.192 is a /26 netmask, 255.255.255.0 is a /24 netmask.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR ) is a method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing. The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous classful network addressing architecture on the Internet. Its goal was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.IP addresses are described as consisting of two groups of bits in the address: the most significant bits are the network prefix, which identifies a whole network or subnet, and the least significant set forms the host identifier, which specifies a particular interface of a host on that network. This division is used as the basis of traffic routing between IP networks and for address allocation policies. Whereas classful network design for IPv4 sized the network prefix as one or more 8-bit groups, resulting in the blocks of Class A, B, or C addresses, under CIDR address space is allocated to Internet service providers and end users on any address-bit boundary. In IPv6, however, the interface identifier has a fixed size of 64 bits by convention, and smaller subnets are never allocated to end users. CIDR encompasses several concepts. It is based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) which allows the specification of arbitrary-length prefixes. CIDR introduced a new method of representation for IP addresses, now commonly known as CIDR notation, in which an address or routing prefix is written with a suffix indicating the number of bits of the prefix, suchClassless_Inter-Domain_Routing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
RJ-11 supports both a 1 (2 wire) and 2 (4 wire) pair configuration, typically used in telephone systems only 1 pair is traditionally utilized. RJ-45 has 4 pairs (8 wires), Coax has 1 wire, and 4-pin 12V is for power supplies.
A registered jack (RJ) is a standardized telecommunication network interface for connecting voice and data equipment to a service provided by a local exchange carrier or long distance carrier. Registration interfaces were first defined in the Universal Service Ordering Code (USOC) system of the Bell System in the United States for complying with the registration program for customer-supplied telephone equipment mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the 1970s. They were subsequently codified in title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 68. Registered Jack connections began to see use after their invention in 1973 by Bell Labs. The specification includes physical construction, wiring, and signal semantics. Accordingly, registered jacks are primarily named by the letters RJ, followed by two digits that express the type. Additional letter suffixes indicate minor variations. For example, RJ11, RJ14, and RJ25 are the most commonly used interfaces for telephone connections for one-, two-, and three-line service, respectively. Although these standards are legal definitions in the United States, some interfaces are used worldwide. The connectors used for registered jack installations are primarily the modular connector and the 50-pin miniature ribbon connector. For example, RJ11 uses a six-position two-conductor connector (6P2C), RJ14 uses a six-position four-conductor (6P4C) modular jack, while RJ21 uses a 25-pair (50-pin) miniature ribbon connector.Registered_jack - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You want to move from using physical servers to using virtual servers/machines (VMs) while utilizing the same hardware that is currently in place. You need to make sure this is possible, what feature must your CPU support?
If your processor does not support virtualization you cannot run VMs on the server. Hyperthreading and multicore processors are nice-to-have but not essential. Dual voltage options are for power supplies, not processing.
In computing, hardware-assisted virtualization is a platform virtualization approach that enables efficient full virtualization using help from hardware capabilities, primarily from the host processors. A full virtualization is used to emulate a complete hardware environment, or virtual machine, in which an unmodified guest operating system (using the same instruction set as the host machine) effectively executes in complete isolation. Hardware-assisted virtualization was added to x86 processors (Intel VT-x or AMD-V) in 2005 and 2006 (respectively). Hardware-assisted virtualization is also known as accelerated virtualization; Xen calls it hardware virtual machine (HVM), and Virtual Iron calls it native virtualization.Hardware-assisted_virtualization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your supervisor decides he wants to transition the office from a fiber connection to a satellite connection. The office relies on the connection for VoIP, email and cloud storage. You find that the prices for satellite connections are cheaper. Why would you advise against this change?
Satellite connections often have notable delay/latency issues which would be unacceptable for VoIP and video conferences, they are also negatively impacted by weather. The hand-off for satellite is likely RJ-45 or something similar, you may need a new modem but re-wiring the entire network is an unlikely requirement. Satellite connections can be used with encryption.
Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communication satellites. Modern consumer grade satellite Internet service is typically provided to individual users through geostationary satellites that can offer relatively high data speeds, with newer satellites using Ku band to achieve downstream data speeds up to 506 Mbit/s. In addition, new satellite internet constellations are being developed in low-earth orbit to enable low-latency internet access from space.Satellite_Internet_access - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You need to make a backup of a small database storing customer information for historical records. The database is about 5.5 GB in size. Of the options, which is the best storage media for this task?
Of the options provided DVD-R DL (DVD-Recordable Dual Layer) is the only one with the capacity (8.5GB) to support this. Both CD options have a 0.7GB capacity, and a DVD-R has a 4.7GB capacity.
The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. Currently allowing up to 17.08 GB of storage, the medium can store any kind of digital data and was widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. However, as with CDs, the information and data storage will begin to degrade over time with most standard DVDs lasting up to 30 years depending the type of environment they are stored and whether they are full with data.Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs (DVD-R and DVD+R) can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs (DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD-RAM) can be recorded and erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material (often in conjunction with AVCHD format camcorders). DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs.DVD - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There is a network (RJ45) port in your office, recently it stopped working. There is no connectivity provided when you plugin to it. The cable and your NIC are known-good, you need to make sure the cable on the back-end of the port is connected but the wiring closet is a disaster. Which tool will assist with this?
Tone generator/probe will help you identify which cable runs to your office so you can see if it is connected. A loopback plug is for testing the NIC, which we already confirmed good. PING is an application/command used to test network connectivity, it won't help here. A cable tester would likely be the next tool used once we find our cable and confirm that it is connected.
A signal generator is one of a class of electronic devices that generates electrical signals with set properties of amplitude, frequency, and wave shape. These generated signals are used as a stimulus for electronic measurements, typically used in designing, testing, troubleshooting, and repairing electronic or electroacoustic devices, though it often has artistic uses as well. There are many different types of signal generators with different purposes and applications and at varying levels of expense. These types include function generators, RF and microwave signal generators, pitch generators, arbitrary waveform generators, digital pattern generators, and frequency generators. In general, no device is suitable for all possible applications. A signal generator may be as simple as an oscillator with calibrated frequency and amplitude. More general-purpose signal generators allow control of all the characteristics of a signal. Modern general-purpose signal generators will have a microprocessor control and may also permit control from a personal computer. Signal generators may be free-standing self-contained instruments, or may be incorporated into more complex automatic test systems.Signal_generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are having issues connecting/consoling to a Linux server hosting a database of customer information from your home machine, you think the problems are being caused by a blocked port on your firewall. Which port on your firewall is likely to cause this sort of an issue if blocked?
Port 22 (SSH) is the best answer, SSH is used for secure communications such as console connections to a remote server. Port 23 is for TELNET and is not a secure connection, it is unlikely (or a horrible practice) that TELNET would be used to connect to a sensitive database. Port 80 is for HTTP traffic, not for console connections. Port 3389 is for RDP, and would not usually be used for a console connection but a remote desktop connection.
The Secure Shell Protocol (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Its most notable applications are remote login and command-line execution. SSH applications are based on a client–server architecture, connecting an SSH client instance with an SSH server. SSH operates as a layered protocol suite comprising three principal hierarchical components: the transport layer provides server authentication, confidentiality, and integrity; the user authentication protocol validates the user to the server; and the connection protocol multiplexes the encrypted tunnel into multiple logical communication channels.SSH was designed on Unix-like operating systems, as a replacement for Telnet and for unsecured remote Unix shell protocols, such as the Berkeley Remote Shell (rsh) and the related rlogin and rexec protocols, which all use insecure, plaintext transmission of authentication tokens. SSH was first designed in 1995 by Finnish computer scientist Tatu Ylönen. Subsequent development of the protocol suite proceeded in several developer groups, producing several variants of implementation. The protocol specification distinguishes two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The most commonly implemented software stack is OpenSSH, released in 1999 as open-source software by the OpenBSD developers. Implementations are distributed for all types of operating systems in common use, including embedded systems.Secure_Shell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You have been tasked by the Network Team to assign a server a new static IP address. You are receiving an error when attempting to apply the IP 172.256.1.15 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0. What is the issue causing the error?
Each octet of an IP must be between 0-255 but the second octet of this IP is 256. The IP is not an APIPA and DHCP would not affect manually setting a static IP. Classes are used to determine the default subnet mask for an IP but you are not required to use it, therefor the class B address can be used with the class A subnet mask.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as 192.0.2.1 that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 192.0.2.1 in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g., 192.0.2.1/24, which is equivalent to the historically used subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), and other end users. IPv4 addresses were distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of approximately 16.8 million addresses each, but have been exhausted at the IANA level since 2011. Only one of the RIRs still has a supply for local assignments in Africa. Some IPv4 addresses are reserved for private networks and are not globally unique. Network administrators assign an IP address to each device connected to aIP_address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There is a printer shared via Windows File and Printer sharing on your SOHO network. When your husband attempts to print he receives an "Access Denied" error. Where should you look to correct this issue?
The Security tab under Printer Properties on the host computer is where you set the permissions for a shared printer, thus it is the correct answer. There is no Security tab under Printing Preferences which is where you set print quality, paper orientation, etc.
You sit down at an unfamiliar server with a black prompt, you decide to identify the server by checking its IP address. You type ipconfig and it responds "bash: ipconfig: command not found...," what command will likely give you the information you're looking for?
The computer is likely a Linux/Unix (*nix) machine, ifconfig is the appropriate command to find the IP address in a *nix OS. Netstat will show active connections but not the IP address. Nslookup is for querying DNS. Tracert is not likely to work on a *nix box, nor will it display for IP since it is used for showing path information to a remote system.
ifconfig (short for interface config) is a system administration utility in Unix-like operating systems for network interface configuration. The utility is a command-line interface tool and is also used in the system startup scripts of many operating systems. It has features for configuring, controlling, and querying TCP/IP network interface parameters. Ifconfig originally appeared in 4.2BSD as part of the BSD TCP/IP suite.Ifconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your boss wants you to come up with a solution for allowing people to easily move their laptops between work and home without having to move and reconnect their mouse, keyboard, network, monitor, etc. What technology will enable this?
A docking station is the only listed choice that will allow you to quickly connect a monitor, network cable, and input devices to the laptop. A cable lock is a physical security device. Monitors do not typically support a wireless connection, and a USB hub does not usually support monitor output or network connections.
In computing, a docking station or port replicator (hub) or dock provides a simplified way to plug-in a mobile device, such as a laptop, to common peripherals. Because a wide range of dockable devices—from mobile phones to wireless mouse—have different connectors, power signaling, and uses, docks are unstandardized and are therefore often designed for a specific type of device.A dock can allow some laptop computers to become a substitute for a desktop computer, without sacrificing the mobile computing functionality of the machine. Portable computers can dock and undock hot, cold or standby, depending on the abilities of the system. In a cold dock or undock, one completely shuts the computer down before docking/undocking. In a hot dock or undock, the computer remains running when docked/undocked. Standby docking or undocking, an intermediate style used in some designs, allows the computer to be docked/undocked while powered on, but requires that it be placed into a sleep mode prior to docking/undocking.Docking_station - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An old Linux server is having USB driver problems and your co-worker needs to bring a different type of keyboard or an adapter. What type of keyboard/adapter is likely needed?
PS/2 is an older port type that was predominately used for input devices like keyboards and mice. Lightning is a newer technology used primarily in Apple products. Firewire is not a likely answer, input devices for firewire is rare/nonexistent. Bluetooth is not likely to be supported on a server, especially an old server.
The PS/2 port is a 6-pin mini-DIN connector used for connecting keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system. Its name comes from the IBM Personal System/2 series of personal computers, with which it was introduced in 1987. The PS/2 mouse connector generally replaced the older DE-9 RS-232 "serial mouse" connector, while the PS/2 keyboard connector replaced the larger 5-pin/180° DIN connector used in the IBM PC/AT design. The PS/2 keyboard port is electrically and logically identical to the IBM AT keyboard port, differing only in the type of electrical connector used. The PS/2 platform introduced a second port with the same design as the keyboard port for use to connect a mouse; thus the PS/2-style keyboard and mouse interfaces are electrically similar and employ the same communication protocol. However, unlike the otherwise similar Apple Desktop Bus connector used by Apple, a given system's keyboard and mouse port may not be interchangeable since the two devices use different sets of commands and the device drivers generally are hard-coded to communicate with each device at the address of the port that is conventionally assigned to that device. (That is, keyboard drivers are written to use the first port, and mouse drivers are written to use the second port.)PS/2_port - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A user complains that he can no longer see any wireless networks, connect to his bluetooth headset, or make phone calls on his Android phone. Which of the following options would best address these issues?
These symptoms describe a phone that is in airplane mode. The best option available would be to disable airplane mode. On most smart phones you could also re-enable WiFi and keep Airplane mode.
Airplane mode (also known as aeroplane mode, flight mode, offline mode, or standalone mode) is a setting available on smartphones and other portable devices. When activated, this mode suspends the device's radio-frequency (RF) signal transmission technologies (i.e., Bluetooth, telephony and Wi-Fi), effectively disabling all analog voice, and digital data services, when implemented correctly by the electronic device software author. When cellular phones became prevalent in the 1990s, some communication headsets of aircraft pilots would register an audible click when a cellular phone on the aircraft would transceive a signal. This clicking on the headsets became overwhelmingly distracting to airframe control, with more and more phone calls from airplane passengers as time went on. This led to the banning of electronic device use on airplanes and ushered in the era of airplane mode. This airplane travel condition diverged cellular network device development from hardware to software and the smart phone was created. The mode is so named because most airlines prohibit the use of equipment that transmit RF signals while in flight. Typically, it is not possible to make phone calls or send messages in airplane mode, but some smartphones allow calls to emergency services. Most devices allow continued use of email clients and other mobile apps to write text or email messages. Messages are stored in memory to transmit later, once airplane mode is disabled. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth can be enabled separately while the device is in a pseudo-airplane mode, as allowed by the operator of the aircraft. Receiving RFAirplane_mode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your company is planning on issuing all management employees an iPhone 6S and an iPad pro. All of the work stations in the office have USB ports; what type of cable is needed to connect these new devices to their work station?
The only ports that the iPhone 6S and iPad Pro have for interacting with a computer are Lightning ports, thus USB to Lightning cable is the correct answer.
Lightning is a proprietary computer bus and power connector created and designed by Apple Inc. Introduced on September 12, 2012 (2012-09-12), to replace its predecessor, the 30-pin dock connector. The Lightning connector is used to connect Apple mobile devices like iPhones, iPads, and iPods to host computers, external monitors, cameras, USB battery chargers, and other peripherals. Using 8 pins instead of 30, Lightning is much smaller than its predecessor, which was integrated with devices like the iPhone 4 and the iPad 2. The male Lightning connector is symmetrical (same pins on either side), so it can be inserted into a female Lightning port in either orientation. The male plug is indented on each side to match up with corresponding points inside the female port to retain the connection.Lightning_(connector) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are in charge of purchasing new computers for the office, they need to "boot fast and store large video files for editing, don't blow your budget either." The systems only have room for one type of storage device and one type of optical device. What is the best drive to meet these requirements?
A hybrid drive will meet these requirements, it is more affordable than an SSD and quicker than a HDD. A tape drive is more of a backup tool, and is slow, not ideal for regular use as described.
In computing, a hybrid drive (solid state hybrid drive – SSHD) is a logical or physical storage device that combines a faster storage medium such as solid-state drive (SSD) with a higher-capacity hard disk drive (HDD). The intent is adding some of the speed of SSDs to the cost-effective storage capacity of traditional HDDs. The purpose of the SSD in a hybrid drive is to act as a cache for the data stored on the HDD, improving the overall performance by keeping copies of the most frequently used data on the faster SSD drive. There are two main configurations for implementing hybrid drives: dual-drive hybrid systems and solid-state hybrid drives. In dual-drive hybrid systems, physically separate SSD and HDD devices are installed in the same computer, having the data placement optimization performed either manually by the end user, or automatically by the operating system through the creation of a "hybrid" logical device. In solid-state hybrid drives, SSD and HDD functionalities are built into a single piece of hardware, where data placement optimization is performed either entirely by the device (self-optimized mode), or through placement "hints" supplied by the operating system (host-hinted mode).Hybrid_drive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are called to look at a co-workers computer. It is not powering on, no fans start, there is no sound, and no lights turn on when the power button is pushed. What should you do first?
Checking the power cable is the most logical answer. You do not know if the power supply is good yet, so replacing it would be premature. These symptoms are not indicative of a CMOS battery issue or a boot sequence issue (also, you can't access the BIOS/UEFI if there is no power).
You're setting up a SOHO and want to setup a dedicated backup server with 2 HDDs. You will be backing up valuable files like family pictures and tax forms, so you value redundancy and reliability over speed. What is the best configuration for this server?
RAID 1 is the only technology that meets the goals stated (redundancy) for the current setup. Dualcore processing is for processing, not storage/backups. RAID 0 is for speed, not redundancy. RAID 5 offers redundancy but requires 3 or more storage devices, you only have 2 HDDs.
RAID (; "redundant array of inexpensive disks" or "redundant array of independent disks") is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both. This was in contrast to the previous concept of highly reliable mainframe disk drives referred to as "single large expensive disk" (SLED).Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways, referred to as RAID levels, depending on the required level of redundancy and performance. The different schemes, or data distribution layouts, are named by the word "RAID" followed by a number, for example RAID 0 or RAID 1. Each scheme, or RAID level, provides a different balance among the key goals: reliability, availability, performance, and capacity. RAID levels greater than RAID 0 provide protection against unrecoverable sector read errors, as well as against failures of whole physical drives.RAID - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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