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The CompTIA 220-901 exam is one of two exams requires to obtain the CompTIA A+ (900 series). This exam will cover topics like networking, mobile devices and hardware and network troubleshooting.
You have recently started as a network technician for a small finance company. The company has been experiencing network outages and very slow transmission speeds. The network has 6 hubs and 1 router, what is most likely causing the poor network performance?
Hubs are not intelligent enough to route packets to their destination. Instead they broadcast any data they receive out of every port (except the port they receive it on). Hubs cause large amounts of unnecessary packets that will clog a network.
An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub, multiport repeater, or simply hub is a network hardware device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. It has multiple input/output (I/O) ports, in which a signal introduced at the input of any port appears at the output of every port except the original incoming. A hub works at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. A repeater hub also participates in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. In addition to standard 8P8C ("RJ45") ports, some hubs may also come with a BNC or an Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) connector to allow connection to legacy 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network segments. Hubs are now largely obsolete, having been replaced by network switches except in very old installations or specialized applications. As of 2011, connecting network segments by repeaters or hubs is deprecated by IEEE 802.3.Ethernet_hub - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are an IT Support Specialist for a medium sized company. An executive is traveling overseas and does not want his company phone to cause any data or service related fees. Which of the following solutions will ensure this does not occur?
The best option is to instruct the user how to disable mobile data for the duration of the trip. While this is disabled they cannot access the internet using their cellular connection but could still use WiFi, Bluetooth, etc. This is supported by all major smart phone operating systems. Mobile data may also be referred to as cellular data.
Airplane mode, aeroplane mode, flight mode, offline mode, or standalone mode is a setting available on smartphones and other portable devices. When activated, this mode suspends the device's radio-frequency (RF) signal transmission technologies (i.e., Bluetooth, telephony and Wi-Fi), effectively disabling all analog voice, and digital data services, when implemented correctly by the electronic device software author. When cellular phones became prevalent in the 1990s, some communication headsets of aircraft pilots would register an audible click when a cellular phone on the aircraft would transceive a signal. This clicking on the headsets became overwhelmingly distracting to airframe control, with more and more phone calls from airplane passengers as time went on. This led to the banning of electronic device use on airplanes and ushered in the era of airplane mode. This airplane travel condition diverged cellular network device development from hardware to software and the smart phone was created. The mode is so named because most airlines prohibit the use of equipment that transmit RF signals while in flight. Typically it is not possible to make phone calls or send messages in airplane mode, but some smartphones allow calls to emergency services. Most devices allow continued use of email clients and other mobile apps to write text or email messages. Messages are stored in memory to transmit later, once airplane mode is disabled. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth can be enabled separately while the device is in a pseudo-airplane mode, as allowed by the operator of the aircraft. Receiving RF signals (as by radioAirplane_mode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Servers should always be given a static IP Address to ensure it can be quickly resolved and any applications using the IP address do not need to be reconfigured.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as 192.0.2.1 that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 192.0.2.1 in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g., 192.0.2.1/24, which is equivalent to the historically used subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), and other end users. IPv4 addresses were distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of approximately 16.8 million addresses each, but have been exhausted at the IANA level since 2011. Only one of the RIRs still has a supply for local assignments in Africa. Some IPv4 addresses are reserved for private networks and are not globally unique. Network administrators assign an IP address to each device connected to aIP_address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
POP3 (Post Office Protocol) uses TCP 110 to communicate.
In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a mail server. POP version 3 (POP3) is the version in common use.Post_Office_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A USB Drive is the only device or component that can be used as a boot device. DDR2 is a type of Random Access Memory (RAM). HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is audio/video interface. FDISK is a command on some operating systems that provides disk partitioning functions - but it is not a storage device as requested by the question.
USB drive may refer to: A USB flash drive or "thumb drive", a USB-connected computer storage using semiconductor non-volatile random-access memory A USB external drive, a hard drive fitted with a USB interface Secure Digital, a non-volatile memory card format CompactFlash, a flash memory mass storage device Memory Stick, a removable flash memory card formatUSB_drive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a network technician for a consulting company. A small company with several wireless access points has been experiencing intermittent outages for employees near the break room. What is most likely the cause?
Microwave ovens operate on the 2.4 Ghz frequency, same as most WiFi networks. The intermittent outages are likely being caused by people using the microwave oven in the break room.
Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter corresponding to frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz respectively. Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter wave) bands. A more common definition in radio-frequency engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz (wavelengths between 0.3 m and 3 mm). In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations. The prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. Rather, it indicates that microwaves are "small" (having shorter wavelengths), compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology. The boundaries between far infrared, terahertz radiation, microwaves, and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are fairly arbitrary and are used variously between different fields of study. Microwaves travel by line-of-sight; unlike lower frequency radio waves they do not diffract around hills, follow the earth's surface as ground waves, or reflect from the ionosphere, so terrestrial microwave communication links are limited by the visual horizon to about 40 miles (64 km). At the high end of the band, they are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere, limiting practical communication distances to around a kilometer. Microwaves are widely usedMicrowave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a backup power supply that can be used in the event of a power outage. Typically a UPS only has 10-15 minutes of power and is intended to allow systems to continue functioning briefly or be powered off safely as opposed to being a long term backup resource.
An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in batteries, supercapacitors, or flywheels. The on-battery run-time of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment. It is a type of continual power system. A UPS is typically used to protect hardware such as computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss. UPS units range in size from ones designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 volt-ampere rating) to large units powering entire data centers or buildings. The world's largest UPS, the 46-megawatt Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), in Fairbanks, Alaska, powers the entire city and nearby rural communities during outages.Uninterruptible_power_supply - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a IT Analyst for a large chain of stores. Your department has been asked to evaluate accepting payments through wireless transmission from mobile devices. Which standard technology are they referring to?
Near Field Communication (NFC) is the standard wireless protocol behind wireless payment options such as Android Pay and Apple Pay.
Near-Field Communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols for communication between two electronic devices over a distance of 4 cm (11⁄2 in) or less NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more-capable wireless connectionsNFC devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards They are used in contactless payment systems and allow mobile payment replacing or supplementing systems such as credit cards and electronic ticket smart cards This is sometimes called NFC/CTLS or CTLS NFC, with contactless abbreviated CTLS NFC can be used for sharing small files such as contacts, and bootstrapping fast connections to share larger media such as photos, videos, and other filesNear_field_communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are planning the installation of several wireless access points in a large warehouse. The access points are typically located on the ceiling far away from power sources. Which technology could be used to power the device?
Power over Ethernet (PoE) allows a device to use an ethernet cable as a power source and it's data/network connection. Using PoE the wireless access points will not need separate power and data connections.
Power over Ethernet, or PoE, describes any of several standards or ad hoc systems that pass electric power along with data on twisted-pair Ethernet cabling. This allows a single cable to provide both data connection and electric power to devices such as wireless access points (WAPs), Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phones. There are several common techniques for transmitting power over Ethernet cabling. Three of them have been standardized by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard IEEE 802.3 since 2003. These standards are known as alternative A, alternative B, and 4PPoE. For 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX, only two of the four signal pairs in typical Cat 5 cable are used. Alternative B separates the data and the power conductors, making troubleshooting easier. It also makes full use of all four twisted pairs in a typical Cat 5 cable. The positive voltage runs along pins 4 and 5, and the negative along pins 7 and 8. Alternative A transports power on the same wires as data for 10 and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet variants. This is similar to the phantom power technique commonly used for powering condenser microphones. Power is transmitted on the data conductors by applying a common voltage to each pair. Because twisted-pair Ethernet uses differential signaling, this does not interfere with data transmission. The common-mode voltage is easily extracted using the center tap of the standard Ethernet pulse transformer. For Gigabit Ethernet and faster, both alternatives A and B transport power on wire pairsPower_over_Ethernet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a network technician for a small consulting company. A client has asked you to evaluate options for several SOHO networks to allow employees to work from home. Often the employees modem is in a different area of the house than their home office. The company has a very strict policy that disallows wireless networks. Which of the following is the most cost effective option?
Power-line communication will allow a SOHO network to be built using ethernet power adapters which is much cheaper than running cable. Power-line communication allows the use of the ethernet protocol over electrical power wiring. If the company doesn't want employees working from home to use wireless networks or to pay the expense of running ethernet from the modem to the office then power-line is a cheap alternative.
Power-line communication (also known as power-line carrier or PLC) carries data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for AC electric power transmission or electric power distribution to consumers. A wide range of power-line communication technologies are needed for different applications, ranging from home automation to Internet access which is often called broadband over power lines (BPL). Most PLC technologies limit themselves to one type of wires (such as premises wiring within a single building), but some can cross between two levels (for example, both the distribution network and premises wiring). Typically transformers prevent propagating the signal, which requires multiple technologies to form very large networks. Various data rates and frequencies are used in different situations. A number of difficult technical problems are common between wireless and power-line communication, notably those of spread spectrum radio signals operating in a crowded environment. Radio interference, for example, has long been a concern of amateur radio groups.Power-line_communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) has two main connector types. The power connector is larger with 15 pins, while the data connector is 7 pins. Both are an L shape to avoid inserting a connector incorrectly.
Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives. Serial ATA succeeded the earlier Parallel ATA (PATA) standard to become the predominant interface for storage devices. Serial ATA industry compatibility specifications originate from the Serial ATA International Organization (SATA-IO) which are then promulgated by the INCITS Technical Committee T13, AT Attachment (INCITS T13).Serial_ATA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), sometimes referred to as HTTP-SSL uses port 443 to communicate.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is used for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet. In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS) or, formerly, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). The protocol is therefore also referred to as HTTP over TLS, or HTTP over SSL. The principal motivations for HTTPS are authentication of the accessed website, and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit. It protects against man-in-the-middle attacks, and the bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server protects the communications against eavesdropping and tampering. The authentication aspect of HTTPS requires a trusted third party to sign server-side digital certificates. This was historically an expensive operation, which meant fully authenticated HTTPS connections were usually found only on secured payment transaction services and other secured corporate information systems on the World Wide Web. In 2016, a campaign by the Electronic Frontier Foundation with the support of web browser developers led to the protocol becoming more prevalent. HTTPS is now used more often by web users than the original non-secure HTTP, primarily to protect page authenticity on all types of websites; secure accounts; and to keep user communications, identity, and web browsing private.HTTPS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your supervisor has asked you to record the IP version 6 addresses of several SUSE Linux systems into a spreadsheet. Which command can you use to obtain this information?
ifconfig (Interface Configuration) is a command line tool on Unix-like systems to display network configuration details. The Windows equivalent is IPCONFIG. Unix-like systems typically refers to Unix, Linux, BSD and OSX operating systems.
ifconfig (short for interface config) is a system administration utility in Unix-like operating systems for network interface configuration. The utility is a command-line interface tool and is also used in the system startup scripts of many operating systems. It has features for configuring, controlling, and querying TCP/IP network interface parameters. Ifconfig originally appeared in 4.2BSD as part of the BSD TCP/IP suite.ifconfig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a Desktop and Laptop Technician for a small computer repair shop. A customer on a limited budget has asked you to upgrade their laptop in order to increase performance. Which of the following components can be easily replaced or upgraded?
Laptop designs often make it difficult to upgrade or change components like video cards, processors and motherboards. RAM and Hard drives are typically easily accessible and cost effective to upgrade in a laptop.
Random-access memory (RAM; ) is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory, in contrast with other direct-access data storage media (such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory), where the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc. devices.In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuit (IC) chips with MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) memory cells. RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory (such as dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) modules), where stored information is lost if power is removed, although non-volatile RAM has also been developed. Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them. These include most types of ROM and a type ofRandom-access_memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
PCIe, or PCI-Express, comes in x1, x4, x8, x16, x32 speeds. The size of the expansion slot also varies depending on type used. While PCIe x32 is defined in the official standard, x16 is generally the largest you will find on the market.
PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X and AGP bus standards. It is the common motherboard interface for personal computers' graphics cards, hard disk drive host adapters, SSDs, Wi-Fi and Ethernet hardware connections. PCIe has numerous improvements over the older standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting, AER), and native hot-swap functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard provide hardware support for I/O virtualization. Defined by its number of lanes, (the number of simultaneous sending and receiving lines of data as in a highway which features traffic in both directions) the PCI Express electrical interface is also used in a variety of other standards, most notably the laptop expansion card interface ExpressCard and computer storage interfaces SATA Express, U.2 (SFF-8639) and M.2. Format specifications are maintained and developed by the PCI-SIG (PCI Special Interest Group), a group of more than 900 companies that also maintain the conventional PCI specifications.PCI_Express - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
While troubleshooting a hardware issue on a laptop with a removable battery you have come to the conclusion that there is a physical issue with one of the laptop's components. The laptop is not plugged into an external power source, what is the next step before opening the laptop's case?
All power sources should be disconnected from the laptop before accessing any internal components. This includes the power supply or charging cable as well as the device's battery.
A large company has a nation-wide network, consisting of several smaller networks linked through a VPN and the internet. Which term would best apply to this network?
A Wide-Area-Network (WAN) is a series of smaller networks that are linked together to form a single, large network. Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) are very similar to WANs, but are geographically smaller and typically used by city governments and universities.
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network that extends over a large geographic area for the primary purpose of computer networking Wide area networks are often established with leased telecommunication circuitsBusinesses, as well as schools and government entities, use wide area networks to relay data to staff, students, clients, buyers and suppliers from various locations across the world In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location The Internet may be considered a WANWide_Area_Network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Your supervisor has asked you to bring her a DE-15 connector. Which of the following is she referring to?
VGA uses a 15 pin DE connector
The Video Graphics Array (VGA) connector is a standard connector used for computer video output. Originating with the 1987 IBM PS/2 and its VGA graphics system, the 15-pin connector went on to become ubiquitous on PCs, as well as many monitors, projectors and high-definition television sets. Other connectors have been used to carry VGA-compatible signals, such as mini-VGA or BNC, but "VGA connector" typically refers to this design.Devices continue to be manufactured with VGA connectors, although newer digital interfaces such as DVI, HDMI and DisplayPort are increasingly displacing VGA, and many modern computers and other devices do not include it.VGA_connector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a server support technician for a data warehouse company. Recently a Windows based server has had several unexpected shut downs. Where should you look first for more information?
On Windows based systems the Event Viewer will display a detailed log of events such as application crashes, power losses and other debugging information for the operating system, third party applications and hardware.
Event Viewer is a component of Microsoft's Windows NT operating system that lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine. Applications and operating-system components can use this centralized log service to report events that have taken place, such as a failure to start a component or to complete an action. In Windows Vista, Microsoft overhauled the event system.Due to the Event Viewer's routine reporting of minor start-up and processing errors (which do not, in fact, harm or damage the computer), the software is frequently used by technical support scammers to trick the victim into thinking that their computer contains critical errors requiring immediate technical support. An example is the "Administrative Events" field under "Custom Views" which can have over a thousand errors or warnings logged over a month's time.Event_Viewer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The exact answer depends on the manufacturer, but regardless the best answer is to put equal size/speed of RAM in each. This is especially important for the speed of the RAM as the lowest speed will be used for all memory slots - even if one has a faster speed available. It is also very common for the motherboard to only support matching sizes (e.g. all 4 GB, all 2 GB, etc.).
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