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This is a practice exam for IT professionals studying for the CompTIA A+ 220-801. A+ covers the fundamentals of computer technology, installation and configuration of PCs, laptops and related hardware, and basic networking.
In a Mesh network topology every network node (router, switch, hub, etc) is connected to every other network node. If a connection breaks, the node can easily communicate with another through multiple existing connections. In reality this is too complex to implement in a large network, but it is still very common to see a hybrid network with several mesh style layers.
A mesh network (or simply meshnet) is a local area network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches, and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data to and from clients. This lack of dependency on one node allows for every node to participate in the relay of information. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead. The ability to self-configure enables dynamic distribution of workloads, particularly in the event a few nodes should fail. This in turn contributes to fault-tolerance and reduced maintenance costs.Mesh topology may be contrasted with conventional star/tree local network topologies in which the bridges/switches are directly linked to only a small subset of other bridges/switches, and the links between these infrastructure neighbours are hierarchical. While star-and-tree topologies are very well established, highly standardized and vendor-neutral, vendors of mesh network devices have not yet all agreed on common standards, and interoperability between devices from different vendors is not yet assured.Mesh_networking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CPU's generate the most heat in a very short amount of time, you should always have a heat sink on your CPU. A fan can also be installed to blow the hot air off of the heat sink.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool CPUs, GPUs, and some chipsets and RAM modules. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself is insufficient to moderate its temperature. A heat sink is designed to maximize its surface area in contact with the cooling medium surrounding it, such as the air. Air velocity, choice of material, protrusion design and surface treatment are factors that affect the performance of a heat sink. Heat sink attachment methods and thermal interface materials also affect the die temperature of the integrated circuit. Thermal adhesive or thermal paste improve the heat sink's performance by filling air gaps between the heat sink and the heat spreader on the device. A heat sink is usually made out of aluminium or copper.Heat_sink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Because Fiber cabling uses light, it can travel extremely far distances while losing a very small amount of data.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of infrared light through an optical fiber. The light is a form of carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference is required. This type of communication can transmit voice, video, and telemetry through local area networks or across long distances.Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, internet communication, and cable television signals. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached a record bandwidth–distance product of over 100 petabit × kilometers per second using fiber-optic communication.Fiber-optic_communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are trying to use RDP to control a Windows computer from your office to an accountant's computer in the corporate office building. What port should be opened in the firewalls between the two locations?
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) uses port 3389 to communicate.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft which provides a user with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection. The user employs RDP client software for this purpose, while the other computer must run RDP server software. Clients exist for most versions of Microsoft Windows (including Windows Mobile), Linux (for example Remmina), Unix, macOS, iOS, Android, and other operating systems. RDP servers are built into Windows operating systems; an RDP server for Unix and OS X also exists (which one? Citation please). By default, the server listens on TCP port 3389 and UDP port 3389.Microsoft currently refers to their official RDP client software as Remote Desktop Connection, formerly "Terminal Services Client". The protocol is an extension of the ITU-T T.128 application sharing protocol. Microsoft makes some specifications public on their website.Remote_Desktop_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
SATA HDDs are the only type of media that would be able to support RAID.
Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives. Serial ATA succeeded the earlier Parallel ATA (PATA) standard to become the predominant interface for storage devices. Serial ATA industry compatibility specifications originate from the Serial ATA International Organization (SATA-IO) which are then promulgated by the INCITS Technical Committee T13, AT Attachment (INCITS T13).Serial_ATA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns IP's to network devices. Domain Name Service (DNS) translates between IP Addresses and Domain names. Address Resolution Protocol translates between IP Addresses and MAC Addresses (Reverse-ARP, RARP does the opposite)
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for automatically assigning IP addresses and other communication parameters to devices connected to the network using a client–server architecture.The technology eliminates the need for individually configuring network devices manually, and consists of two network components, a centrally installed network DHCP server and client instances of the protocol stack on each computer or device. When connected to the network, and periodically thereafter, a client requests a set of parameters from the DHCP server using the DHCP protocol. DHCP can be implemented on networks ranging in size from residential networks to large campus networks and regional ISP networks. Many routers and residential gateways have DHCP server capability. Most residential network routers receive a unique IP address within the ISP network. Within a local network, a DHCP server assigns a local IP address to each device. DHCP services exist for networks running Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), as well as version 6 (IPv6). The IPv6 version of the DHCP protocol is commonly called DHCPv6.Dynamic_Host_Configuration_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are a Server Administrator at a small company. Company policy dictates that all remote connections must be encrypted and accessed using some form of authentication. Which of the following will allow a user to upload a large file from home, while adhering to company policy?
Secure-FTP (or SSH-FTP) uses Secure Shell (SSH) to encrypt a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) connection. This allows you to upload files to a SFTP server on a secure connection. FTP servers can also be configured to require a username/password as authentication.
In computing, the SSH File Transfer Protocol (also Secure File Transfer Protocol, or SFTP) is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer, and file management over any reliable data stream. It was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an extension of the Secure Shell protocol (SSH) version 2.0 to provide secure file transfer capabilities. The IETF Internet Draft states that, even though this protocol is described in the context of the SSH-2 protocol, it could be used in a number of different applications, such as secure file transfer over Transport Layer Security (TLS) and transfer of management information in VPN applications. This protocol assumes that it is run over a secure channel, such as SSH, that the server has already authenticated the client, and that the identity of the client user is available to the protocol.SSH_File_Transfer_Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CAT5 is rated at 100 megabits per second.
Category 5 cable (Cat 5) is a twisted pair cable for computer networks. Since 2001, the variant commonly in use is the Category 5e specification (Cat 5e). The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for most varieties of Ethernet over twisted pair up to 2.5GBASE-T but more commonly runs at 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) speeds. Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephone and video. This cable is commonly connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.Category_5_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
802.11g is capable of communicating at speeds up to 54 Megabits per second.
IEEE 802.11g-2003 or 802.11g is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification that operates in the 2.4 GHz microwave band. The standard has extended throughput to up to 54 Mbit/s using the same 20 MHz bandwidth as 802.11b uses to achieve 11 Mbit/s. This specification under the marketing name of Wi-Fi has been implemented all over the world. The 802.11g protocol is now Clause 19 of the published IEEE 802.11-2007 standard, and Clause 19 of the published IEEE 802.11-2012 standard. 802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods. They are commonly used today in their 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac and 802.11ax versions to provide wireless connectivity in the home, office and some commercial establishments. 802.11g is fully backward compatible with 802.11b.IEEE_802.11g-2003 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thermal paste (or Thermal grease) is designed to conduct heat traveling between two elements. In this case, Thermal paste allows heat to efficiently leave the processor and travel to the heat sink.
Thermal paste (also called thermal compound, thermal grease, thermal interface material (TIM), thermal gel, heat paste, heat sink compound, heat sink paste or CPU grease) is a thermally conductive (but usually electrically insulating) chemical compound, which is commonly used as an interface between heat sinks and heat sources such as high-power semiconductor devices The main role of thermal paste is to eliminate air gaps or spaces (which act as thermal insulation) from the interface area in order to maximize heat transfer and dissipation Thermal paste is an example of a thermal interface material As opposed to thermal adhesive, thermal paste does not add mechanical strength to the bond between heat source and heat sinkThermal_grease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A client is complaining their laptop often does not charge, or stops charging if they move it. What is most likely the issue?
The DC jack is where the power adapter feeds power to the laptops power supply, and can often break due to heat or become loose over time.
A DC connector (or DC plug, for one common type of connector) is an electrical connector for supplying direct current (DC) power. Compared to domestic AC power plugs and sockets, DC connectors have many more standard types that are not interchangeable. The dimensions and arrangement of DC connectors can be chosen to prevent accidental interconnection of incompatible sources and loads. Types vary from small coaxial connectors used to power portable electronic devices from AC adapters, to connectors used for automotive accessories and for battery packs in portable equipment.DC_connector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Plenum is a special material used to jacket a cable, this jacket is fire retardant and will reduce the amount of hazardous fumes in the air if the cable is subject to a fire.
Plenum cable is electrical cable that is laid in the plenum spaces of buildings. In the United States, plastics used in the construction of plenum cable are regulated under the National Fire Protection Association standard NFPA 90A: Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. All materials intended for use on wire and cables to be placed in plenum spaces are designed to meet rigorous fire safety test standards in accordance with NFPA 262 and outlined in NFPA 90A. Plenum cable is jacketed with a fire-retardant plastic jacket of either a low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP). Polyolefin formulations, specifically based on polyethylene compounding had been developed by at least two companies in the early to mid-1990s; however, these were never commercialized, and development efforts continue in these yet-untapped product potentials. Development efforts on a non-halogen plenum compound were announced in 2007 citing new flame-retardant synergist packages that may provide an answer for a yet-underdeveloped plenum cable market outside the United States. In 2006, significant concern developed over the potential toxicity of FEP and related fluorochemicals including the process aid perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or C8 such that California has proposed some of these materials as potential human carcinogens. The NFPA Technical Committee on Air Conditioning, in response to public comment, has referred the issue of toxicity of cabling materials to the NFPA Committee on Toxicity for review before 2008. In 2007, a development program specifically targeting the production of a non-halogen plenum cablePlenum_cable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A Crimper is used to attach RJ-45 to CAT cables. A punch down tool is used to attach it to a punch down block. Loopbacks and cable testers are used for testing purposes once the cables are finished.
Crimping is joining two or more pieces of metal or other ductile material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp.Crimp_(joining) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are worried about your cabling being susceptible to EMI, what would be the best choice if cost is not a factor?
Fiber is the most expensive cable type, but provides the fastest data speeds and is immune to electromagnetic interference.
An optical fiber (or fibre in British English) is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data transfer rates) than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference, a problem from which metal wires suffer. Fibers are also used for illumination and imaging, and are often wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are also used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers.Optical fibers typically include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted.Optical_fiber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You want to host a gaming server for you and your friends to play on. Where on your network would you place it?
A DMZ will allow your server to be accessed through the internet, but keep it separate from your local LAN. This ensures your LAN is still secure if the server is attacked.
In computer security, a DMZ or demilitarized zone (sometimes referred to as a perimeter network or screened subnet) is a physical or logical subnetwork that contains and exposes an organization's external-facing services to an untrusted, usually larger, network such as the Internet. The purpose of a DMZ is to add an additional layer of security to an organization's local area network (LAN): an external network node can access only what is exposed in the DMZ, while the rest of the organization's network is firewalled. The DMZ functions as a small, isolated network positioned between the Internet and the private network.This is not to be confused with a DMZ host, a feature present in some home routers which frequently differs greatly from an ordinary DMZ. The name is from the term demilitarized zone, an area between states in which military operations are not permitted.DMZ_(computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CAT5, CAT53 and CAT6 cabling uses RJ-45 connectors.
A registered jack (RJ) is a standardized telecommunication network interface for connecting voice and data equipment to a service provided by a local exchange carrier or long distance carrier. Registration interfaces were first defined in the Universal Service Ordering Code (USOC) system of the Bell System in the United States for complying with the registration program for customer-supplied telephone equipment mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the 1970s. They were subsequently codified in title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 68. Registered Jack connections began to see use after their invention in 1973 by Bell Labs. The specification includes physical construction, wiring, and signal semantics. Accordingly, registered jacks are primarily named by the letters RJ, followed by two digits that express the type. Additional letter suffixes indicate minor variations. For example, RJ11, RJ14, and RJ25 are the most commonly used interfaces for telephone connections for one-, two-, and three-line service, respectively. Although these standards are legal definitions in the United States, some interfaces are used worldwide. The connectors used for registered jack installations are primarily the modular connector and the 50-pin miniature ribbon connector. For example, RJ11 uses a six-position two-conductor connector (6P2C), RJ14 uses a six-position four-conductor (6P4C) modular jack, while RJ21 uses a 25-pair (50-pin) miniature ribbon connector.Registered_jack#RJ45 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Which of the following network standards can operate at two different channel widths on the same spectrum simultaneously?
Using "channel bonding" the 802.11n wireless standard is capable of operating on two separate channels at the same time. This feature allows 802.11n networks to double their bandwidth, however it can result in increases interference and power usage.
IEEE 802.11n-2009 or 802.11n is a wireless-networking standard that uses multiple antennas to increase data rates. The Wi-Fi Alliance has also retroactively labelled the technology for the standard as Wi-Fi 4. It standardized support for multiple-input multiple-output, frame aggregation, and security improvements, among other features, and can be used in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands. As the first Wi-Fi standard that introduced MIMO (Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output) support, sometimes devices/systems that support 802.11n standard (or draft version of the standard) are being referred to as MIMO (Wi-Fi products), especially before the introduction of the next generation standard. The use of MIMO-OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to increase the data rate while maintaining the same spectrum as 802.11a was first demonstrated by Airgo Networks.The purpose of the standard is to improve network throughput over the two previous standards—802.11a and 802.11g—with a significant increase in the maximum net data rate from 54 Mbit/s to 72 Mbit/s with a single spatial stream in a 20 MHz channel, and 600 Mbit/s (slightly higher gross bit rate including for example error-correction codes, and slightly lower maximum throughput) with the use of four spatial streams at a channel width of 40 MHz.IEEE 802.11n-2009 is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11-2007 wireless-networking standard. 802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods. They are commonly used today in their 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac and 802.11ax versions to provide wireless connectivity in homes and businesses. Development of 802.11n began in 2002, seven years before publication. The 802.11n protocol isIEEE_802.11n-2009 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You are installing a floppy drive into a new desktop PC, what should you check for before purchasing or installing?
A Berg adapter is used to supply power from the power supply, to the floppy drive. Some newer power supplies do not come with a berg due to low demand for floppy drives. You can purchase molex->berg adapters to fix this issue.
Berg connector is a brand of electrical connector used in computer hardware. Berg connectors are manufactured by Berg Electronics Corporation of St. Louis, Missouri, now part of Amphenol.Berg_connector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
You need to build or select a PC that will be mass produced for your corporate network. What should you consider most?
You should establish the requirements for the applications these PC's will be running, from there you can easily find the system hardware requirements.
In systems engineering and software engineering, requirements analysis focuses on the tasks that determine the needs or conditions to meet the new or altered product or project, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, analyzing, documenting, validating and managing software or system requirements.Requirements analysis is critical to the success or failure of a systems or software project. The requirements should be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, traceable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design.Requirements_analysis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A TV Tuner allows you to input various inputs such as coax, HDMI, and RGB video.
A TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, allowing them to record television programs onto a hard disk much like the digital video recorder (DVR) does. The interfaces for TV tuner cards are most commonly either PCI bus expansion card or the newer PCI Express (PCIe) bus for many modern cards, but PCMCIA, ExpressCard, or USB devices also exist. In addition, some video cards double as TV tuners, notably the ATI All-In-Wonder series. The card contains a tuner and an analog-to-digital converter (collectively known as the analog front end) along with demodulation and interface logic. Some lower-end cards lack an onboard processor and, like a Winmodem, rely on the system's CPU for demodulation.TV_tuner_card - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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