Out-of-band management is the use of a trusted, dedicated management channel for accessing a network device. This data is transmitted separately from in-band data such as network traffic.
In systems management, out-of-band management involves the use of management interfaces (or serial ports) for managing networking equipment. Out-of-band (OOB) management is a networking term which refers to accessing and managing network infrastructure at remote locations, and doing it through a separate management plane from the production network. Cellular 4G and 5G networks are used today for out-of-band management and many manufacturers have it as a product offering. Out-of-band management is now considered an essential network component to ensure business continuity.
Out-of-band management allows the network operator to establish trust boundaries in accessing the management function to apply it to network resources. It also can be used to ensure management connectivity (including the ability to determine the status of any network component) independent of the status of other in-band network components.
In computing, one form of out-of-band management is sometimes called lights-out management (LOM) and involves the use of a dedicated management channel for device maintenance. It allows a system administrator to monitor and manage servers and other network-attached equipment by remote control regardless of whether the machine is powered on or whether an OS is installed or functional.
By contrast, in-band management through VNC or SSH is based on in-band connectivity (the usual network channel). It typically requires software that must be installed on the remote system being managed and only works after the operating system has been booted and networking is brought up. It does not allow management of remote network components independently of the current status of