Laptop batteries contain chemicals that are considered toxic and should always be disposed of in conjunction with a materials recycler.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery composed of cells in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the material at the positive electrode and typically graphite at the negative electrode. Li-ion batteries have a high energy density, no memory effect (other than LFP cells) and low self-discharge. Cells can be manufactured to prioritize either energy or power density. They can however be a safety hazard since they contain flammable electrolytes and if damaged or incorrectly charged can lead to explosions and fires.
M. Stanley Whittingham discovered the concept of intercalation electrodes in the 1970s, and invented the first rechargeable lithium-ion battery, which was based on a titanium disulfide cathode and a lithium-aluminum anode, patented in 1977, and assigned to Exxon. John Goodenough expanded on this work in 1980 by using lithium cobalt oxide as a cathode. A prototype Li-ion battery was developed by Akira Yoshino in 1985, based on the earlier research by John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, Rachid Yazami and Koichi Mizushima during the 1970s–1980s, and then a commercial Li-ion battery was developed by a Sony and Asahi Kasei team led by Yoshio Nishi in 1991. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications.Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across types of lithium-ion batteries. Handheld electronics mostly use